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The Situation of Kurdish Children in Turkey


Éditeur : KHRP Date & Lieu : 2010, London
Préface : Pages : 158
Traduction : ISBN : 978-1-905592-29-6
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 148x210 mm
Thème : Politique

Présentation
Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
The Situation of Kurdish Children in Turkey


THE SITUATION OF KURDISH CHILDREN IN TURKEY – FACT-FINDING MISSION & RESEARCH REPORT

There are an estimated 15 million Kurds in Turkey. Comprising 23 per cent of the country’s population, the Kurds are Turkey’s largest non-Turkish ethnic group. According to census data, one quarter of the Turkish population is under 15. Accurate figures for the percentage of children under 18 are difficult to find given that the Turkish census only aggregates demographic data according to those aged 0-14, 15-64 and 65 years and over. However the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), estimate that approximately 36 per cent of Turkey’s population is under the age of 19, and applying this percentage to the Kurdish population we can roughly estimate that there are around 5,400,000 or more Kurdish children aged 19 and under in Turkey. In line with the mandate of promoting and protecting human rights in the Kurdish regions, in 2004 the KHRP produced a report on the situation of Kurdish children in Turkey, which was developed from desk-based research. KHRP decided to follow up on this report in 2008 in order to assess what improvements, if any, had been made in the intervening period.

The 2004 report was produced in the wake of the assessment of Turkey’s international obligations under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 2001. Immediately following this assessment a number of NGOs had produced their own reviews of Turkey’s compliance, and as a result, there was a dearth of new investigative material. Since then, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child has gone onto review in December 2007, Turkey’s report under Article 8, paragraph 1, of the optional protocol to the CRC on the involvement of children in armed conflict, and in September 2009, the Turkish government’s responses to the Committee’s list of issues. The continued policy of the Turkish state which does not distinguish between its citizens ethnic/cultural/linguistic origins makes it difficult to gather information or data on any specific sub-group of the Kurdish population, including children. This problem is magnified by the fact that many of the international organisations working in Turkey that KHRP contacted, did not distinguish between the Turkish and Kurdish population within their work. A report developed solely from desk-based research would therefore not be sufficient to produce a comprehensive assessment of the situation of Kurdish children in Turkey...


Table des Matières

CONTENTS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS / 13
INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY / 15
1. KURDISH CHILDREN IN TURKEY: A BACKGROUND / 21
a) History of the Kurdish People in Turkey / 21
b) Demographics / 21
c) Turkey’s Economy / 22
d) Income Inequality and Development in the Kurdish Region / 22
e) Language and Cultural Issues Affecting Kurdish Populations / 24

2. TURKEY’S INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS / 27
a) The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms / 29
b) The European Social Charter / 30
c) EU Accession Bid Obligations / 30
d) United Nations Conventions / 31

3. HOUSING, HEALTH AND NUTRITION / 35
a) Housing Problems in the Kurdish Region of Turkey / 35
i. Successes and Problems in Compliance/Implementation / 35
b) International Obligations/  36
i. International Housing Obligations / 36
ii. International Health and Nutrition Obligations / 37
c) Health and Nutrition Problems in the Kurdish Region / 44
i. The General Health Situation / 44
ii. Impact of Internal Displacement on Health and Nutrition / 48
iii. The Green Card System and Institutionalised Discrimination / 53
iv. Regional Initiatives and Role of Central Government / 57
v. Conclusions and Recommendations / 59

4. EDUCATION / 61
a) International Education Obligations / 61
b) Education in Turkey: The General Situation / 61
c) Lack of Resources for Education / 62
d) Access to Education / 67
e) Access - Kurdish Language / 68
i. Nationalism in Education / 70
f) Access - Cost and Education / 70
g) Access - Gender and Access to Education / 74
h) Conclusions and Recommendations / 75

5. STREET CHILDREN AND CHILD LABOUR / 77
a) International Child Rights Obligations / 75
b) General Introduction to Street Children and Child Labour in Turkey / 75
c) Causes of Child Labour / 79
d) Effects of Child Labour / 82
e) Protection of Children in Turkey / 85
f) Conclusions and Recommendations / 93

6. GENDER-BASED DISCRIMINATION / 95
a) Gender Discrimination in Education / 95
b) Early and Non-consensual Marriage / 98
c) Honour Killings / 101
d) Forced Prostitution, Human Trafficking and Rape / 105
e) Conclusions and Recommendations / 108

7. VIOLENCE IN THE HOME / 111
a) Domestic Violence: State Protection / 112
i. The Social Services Agency / 116
ii. The Medical System / 116
iii. The Legal System / 117
b) Violence and Culture / 119
c) Conclusions and Recommendations / 121

8. JUVENILE JUSTICE / 123
a) International Legal Obligations / 123
b) Juvenile Legal Protection in Turkey / 123
i. Political vs. Non-Political Crime / 124
ii. Types of Children Courts / 124
iii. Special Rules Applicable to Children / 124
c) Problems with Legal Framework / 126
d) Children in Armed Conflict and Juvenile Justice / 128
e) Political Activism / 130
i. Naivety of Children Taking Part in Demonstrations / 130
ii. Reasons for Growth in Children’s Participation / 131
iii. Cultural Attitudes and Gendered Participation / 131
iv. Special Suspicion towards Children / 132
v. Criminalisation of Children / 133
vi. Lack of Measures for Children / 134
f) Legal Harassment / 138
g) Physical and Mental Abuse / 141
h) Incarceration and Mistreatment / 145
i) Conclusions and Recommendations / 149

9. CONCLUSIONS AND OVERARCHING RECOMMENDATIONS / 153

APPENDIX I: LIST OF QUESTIONS PUT TO TURKISH AUTHORITIES / 157




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