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The Middle East


Éditeur : New York University Press Date & Lieu : 1981, New York
Préface : Pages : 336
Traduction : ISBN : 0-13-581629-7
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 150x230 mm
Code FIKP : Liv. Eng. Eic. Mid. N°1315Thème : Général

Présentation
Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
The Middle East

The Middle East

Dale F. Eickelman

New York University


What did scholars learn about the Middle East from late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century explorations? How does Islam affect political and social life? How do the society and family life of tribes and towns accommodate to modern traditions? How do earlier cities compare with those of today?

The answers to these probing questions illustrate the topics discussed in The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. This introduction to the Middle East is based on the author’s Middle Eastern anthropology series for CBS-TV’s “Sunrise Semester.” The material focuses on the contribution which the study of the Middle East is making to the main currents of anthropology, “especially those,” as the author explains, “which relate to the analysis of complex societies.”

Part I —Introduction offers some practical assumptions concerning how the Middle East has been understood in the past; Part II interprets the present and how Middle Easterners see their society and culture; Part [II is concerned with Islam and religious experience; and Part IV assesses the impact of political and economic change.

The book is written for the general reader as well as the student. It deals with inquiry and discovery rather than a review of the literature.


Table des Matières


Contents


Preface / ix
Note on Transliteration / xiii

Part 1
Introduction

1
Anthropology and the Middle East / 1
The Middle East Defined / 1
Anthropology: Some Practical Assumptions / 6
First Approximations / 13

2
Intellectual Predecessors:
The Rediscovery of the Middle East / 23
Bonaparte’s Expedition to Egypt, 1798-1801 / 25
Explorers and Scholars / 27
William Robertson Smith (1846-1894) / 33
Scholarly Inquiry and Imperial Interests / 38

3
The Functionalist Era:
Village and Community Studies / 45
Functionalism as Theory and Practice / 45
Functionalism in the Study of the Middle East / 48

4
The Contexts of Pastoral Nomadism / 63
Pastoral Nomadism: The Past and the Present / 65
Saudi Arabian Pastoralists: The Al Murra / 72
The Ideology of Equality:
Further Considerations / 81

Part II
Meaning and Society

5
What is a Tribe? / 85
Ideologies / 85
The Concept of Tribe / 87
A Moroccan Example: The Bril Bataw / 90
Segmentation Ideology or Segmentary Theory:
The Bedouin of Cyrenaica / 98

6
Personal and Family Relationships / 105
Kinship Today 105 Cultural Forms / 108
Practical Kinship: Morocco 110 Practical Kinship:
Some Analytical Considerations 116 Marriage / 124
The Importance of Kin and Family / 128

7
Change in Practical Ideologies:
Self, Sexuality, and Ethnicity / 135
Naming / 136
Women, Men, and Sexuality / 141
Ethnicity and Cultural Identity / 157

8
The Cultural Order of Complex Societies / 175
World View / 175
Morocco: God’s Will, Reason, and Obligation / 178
North Africans in Israel / 183
The Market as a Cultural Form / 186
Lying / 190
Etiquette / 192
Iran: Tacaruf / 196
Conclusion / 199

Part III
Islam and Religious Experience

9
Islam in Practice / 201
Islam as a World Religion / 201
The Five Pillars / 204
The Shica / 213
An Ideological Frontier?: The Alevi / 219
Sufism / 222
Maraboutism: Town and Tribe / 228
Men of Learning (c Ulama’) / 235
Reform: The Self-Renewal of Islamic Tradition / 246
Beginnings / 252

Part IV
The Shape of Change

10
Cities in Their Place / 261
Issues / 261
The “Islamic" City / 266
Colonial Cities and Their Legacy / 273
Cities Now / 277
Cities and Social Class / 283

11
Political Economy:
Past and Present / 289
Medieval Muslim States:
Problems of Authority and Interpretation / 290
The Colonial Experience / 297
The Social Anthropology of the Nation-State / 306
Development in Perspective 317 Conclusion / 324

Glossary / 326

Index / 331




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