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The Kurds in Iraq


Auteurs : Kerim Yıldız |
Éditeur : Pluto Press Date & Lieu : 2004, London
Préface : Mark Muller Pages : 238
Traduction : ISBN : 0-7453-2229-8
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 135x215 mm
Code FIKP : 2900Thème : Politique

Présentation
Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
The Kurds in Iraq

Versions

The Kurds in Iraq. The Past, Present and Future

Today there are an estimated 4.2 million Kurds in Iraq — nearly a quarter of the country's population. The majority are Sunni Muslims. For a long time Iraqi Kurds have desired an independent Kurdistan — a desire shared by Kurds in Turkey, Iran and Syria.

This book explores the issues facing the Kurdish population of Iraq in the aftermath of the war and chaos of the occupation. It is the most clear and up-to-date account of what Iraqi Kurds want, and the problems that all political groups face in re-building the country, as well as exploring Kurdish links and international relations in the broader sense. It should be required reading for policy-makers and anyone interested in the current position of Kurds in Iraq.

Yildiz explores the impact of war and occupation on the Kurdish community in Iraq, and in particular the crucial role of the city of Kirkuk in the post-war seulement. He also looks at how

UN rifts potentially affect the Kurds; relations between Iraqi Kurds and Turkey; relations with Iran; and US policy towards the Kurds.


Table des Matières

Contents 

Foreword / ix
Map of the area inhabited by Kurds / xi
Introduction / 1

Part I: The Past
1 The Kurds / 7
'Kurds' and 'Kurdistan' / 7
Language / 8
Religion / 8
Population / 9
Topography of Kurdistan / 9

2 The Treaty of Sèvres and the Creation of Iraq / 10

3 The Kurds Under Barzani / 15

Revolts / 15
The emergence of a Kurdish leader / 15
Aftermath of the 1958 Revolution / 16
The Ba'ath regimes / 17
The March Manifesto of 1970 / 17
The 1974 Autonomy Law / 20
US and Iranian involvement in Kurdish-Iraqi relations: 1970-75 / 22
The Algiers Agreement of 1975 and its aftermath / 23

4 The Anfal Campaigns / 25
Spoils of war / 25
The logic of destruction / 25
The spring offensives of 1988 / 26
The attack on Halabja / 27
The attack on Sayw Senan / 28
The remaining Anfal campaigns / 28
Amnesty / 30
International responses to the Anfal campaigns / 31
 
5 The First Gulf War: From Uprising to Democracy / 34
Background / 34
The intifada (uprising) / 34
The Ba'athists respond / 36
Exodus from Iraqi Kurdistan / 36
Turkey, Iran and the Iraqi Kurds / 37
Resolution 688 / 37
'Operation Provide Comfort' / 39
'Operation Safe Haven' / 39
Negotiating autonomy with Saddam Hussein / 42

6 Democracy in Iraqi Kurdistan / 44
A rainbow alliance / 44
International ambivalence / 44
Autonomy from a Kurdish perspective / 45
Electoral procedure / 45
A new kind of political space? / 46
Relations between the PUK and KDP / 48

7 Human Rights in Iraqi Kurdistan / 51
Background / 51
Crimes of the Ba'ath regime / 52
Breaches of international law by the government of Iraq / 54
Humanitarian law / 55
Human rights structures and the Kurdish authorities / 57
Women's rights in Iraqi Kurdistan / 57

8 The Internally Displaced of Iraqi Kurdistan / 62
A displaced history / 62
Displacement since the establishment of the safe haven / 64

9 Economic/Humanitarian Affairs in Iraqi Kurdistan / 67
Background / 67
Oil in Iraq: A brief overview / 68
Oil in Iraqi Kurdistan: A brief overview / 69
Pipelines / 69
Sanctions / 70
Criticism of the Oil-for-Food Programme / 72
Embargo / 74
Currency / 75
Employment / 75
Non-governmental organisations / 75
 
10 The Kurds Have no Friends but the Mountains / 78
Turkey: A difficult neighbour / 78
Beyond Iraq: The Kurds of Turkey, Iran and Syria / 81
11 US Foreign Policy Towards Saddam: Pre-September 11 / 89

Part II: The Present

12 The Road to War / 93
`Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists' / 93
The Kurds' path to war / 103

13 The Second Gulf War: 'Operation Iraqi Freedom' / 109
`They were received with bombs, shoes and bullets' / 109
The Kurdish Jerusalem / 110
War over? / 113
The current security situation / 113
Security strategy / 115

14 Current Executive Structure in Iraq / 116
Saddam's Iraqi opposition / 116
Political reconstruction / 117

15 Current Legal and Human Rights Issues / 122
The Coalition Provisional Authority / 122
Humanitarian international law obligations / 122
International human rights law obligations / 124

16 The Question of Autonomy / 129

17 The Anfal Campaigns: The War Crimes Tribunal 130
An enduring legacy / 130
The Iraqi Special Tribunal / 131
The defendants / 132
The death penalty / 133
International judges / 133
The crimes / 134

18 The Internally Displaced: The Current Situation / 137
General situation / 137
The Takiyeh camp / 137
The Anfal camp at Suresh / 138
The UN-HABITAT camp at Bazian / 139
The problem of mines / 140
Reversing the 'Arabisation' programme / 140

19 Current Economic/Humanitarian Issues in Iraqi Kurdistan / 142
Sanctions and embargoes / 142
The Oil-for-Food Programme / 142
Currency / 143
Non-governmental organisations and international organisations / 144
Oil / 145

Part III: The Future

20 Self-Determination and Autonomy / 151
What is self-determination? / 151
The Kurdish daim to self-determination / 154
Autonomy / 157
A UN mandate? / 159
Economic issues / 161

21 The Tribunal and the Victims / 163
Introduction / 163
A UN tribunal / 163
A hybrid court / 164
The International Criminal Court / 165
A Truth and Reconciliation Commission / 165
The way forward / 166

22 The Land Question / 168
The Iraqi Property Reconciliation Facility / 168
The way forward / 169

Addendum / 172

Appendix I: Articles of the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres relating to Kurdistan / 173
Appendix II: The Kurdistan Regional Government Provisional Constitution for the Federal Republic of Iraq / 175
Appendix III: UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement / 190

Notes  / 201

Index / 233




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