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Agha, Shaikh and State


Éditeur : Zed Books Date & Lieu : 1992, London
Préface : Pages : 374
Traduction : ISBN : 1-85649-018-1
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 135x215 mm
Code FIKP : Liv. En.Thème : Général

Présentation
Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
Agha, Shaikh and State

Versions

Agha, Shaikh and State: The Social and Political Structures of Kurdistan

Exacerbated by the Gulf War, the plight of the Kurds is one of the most urgent problems facing the international community. This authoritative study of the Kurdish people provides a deep and varied insight into one of the largest primarily tribal communities in the world.

It covers the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the great Kurdish revolt against republican Turkey, the birth of Kurdish nationalism and the situation of the Kurdish people in Iraq, Turkey and Iran today.

Van Bruinessen's work is already recognized as a key contribution to this subject. Tribe by tribe, he accounts for the evolution of power within Kurdish religious and other lineages, and shows how relations with the state have played a key constitutive role in the development of tribal structures. This is illustrated from contemporary Kurdish life, highlighting the complex interplay between traditional clan loyalties and their modern national equivalents.

This book is essential to any Middle East collection, It has serious implications for the study of tribal life elsewhere, and it documents the history of what has until recently been a forgotten people.

Dr Martin van Bruinessen is a distinguished social anthropologist and a Fellow of the Kurdish Institute in Paris.


Table des Matières

Contents

Preface / ix
Introduction / 1
How this book came to be written / 1
Subject of this study / 6
A note on the written sources / 8

1. General Information on Kurdistan / 11
Geography / 11
Geopolitical situation / 13
Population / 14
Other economic activities: crafts/industries and trades / 18
Language / 21
Religion / 23
The Kurdish national movement, 1960-85 / 25
Iranian Kurdistan and the Islamic Revolution / 34
The Iran-Iraq war and the Kurds / 38
Saddam Hussein's solution to the Kurdish question / 42
Recent changes in Turkey's attitude / 45

2. Tribes, Chieftains and Non-tribal Groups / 50
The tribe and its subdivisions / 51
Kurdish terms / 59
Blood feud and other conflicts / 64
Higher than the tribe? / 74
Leadership and conflicts / 78
Leadership: titles and functions / 80
The guest-house / 81
Economic aspects: tribute to the agha / 85
Leadership situation among a number of different tribes / 87
Power as a process: the colonization of the northern Jazira / 94
Subject 'non-tribal' peasantry and their relations with tribal Kurds / 105
The guran and the Guran / 109
Nomads and peasants: one or two peoples? / 115
Conclusion / 122
 
3. Tribes and the State / 133
Introduction / 133
The incorporation of Kurdistan into the Ottoman Empire / 136
The political history of some Kurdish emirates / 145
Administrative organization of Ottoman Kurdistan in the sixteenth century / 151
Internal organization of the Kurdish emirates / 161
Political changes in the nineteenth century / 175
The rise of Bedr Khan Beg and the fall of the emirate of Botan / 177
The new land code and its effects / 182
The establishment of Kurdish tribal militias: the Hamidiye / 185
Mustafa Pasha of the Miran / 186
Ibrahim Pasha of the Milan / 187
Changes in the early twentieth century / 189
Conclusions / 192

4. Shaikhs: mystics, saints and politicians / 203
Introductory remarks / 205
God incarnate / 205
Dervish and sufi orders / 210
Sufi and dervish orders: organized popular mysticism / 213
The history of the Qadiri order as an example / 216
Qadiri shaikhs in Kurdistan / 220
The Naqshbandi tariqa and the Naqshbandi order / 222
Why did the Naqshbandi order spread so rapidly? / 224
Rituals of the Qadiri order / 234
The Naqshbandi ritual / 240
Shaikh and khalifa: relations with other shaikhs / 244
The shaikh and his followers / 246
Millenarianism / 249
Decline of the shaikhs' influence / 252
Islamic revival: the Nurcu movement / 257

5. Shaikh Said's Revolt / 265
Introduction / 265
History of Kurdish national consciousness / 267
The end of the Ottoman Empire and the birth of the Republic of
Turkey / 270
The first Kurdish political organizations / 275
Shaikh Said's revolt / 281
External and internal support for the revolt / 291
The Naqshbandi order and the revolt / 296
The religious versus the nationalist character of the revolt / 298
 
6. Concluding Remarks / 306
Appendix: The major shaikhly families of Kurdistan / 319
Some oriental terms frequently used in this book / 341
Bibliography / 344
Index / 362

Tables
1. Population estimates for 1975 / 15
Figures
1. Segmentary lineage structure / 52
2. Consistent father's brother's daughter marriage / 72
3. Partial family tree of the Duriki aghas (mala Abbas) / 97
4. Partial family tree of the Heverkan aghas (mala Osman) / 102
5. Social stratification of Kurdish society / 120
6. Growth of the administrative network and the breaking up of large autonomous units in the periphery / 194
7. Structure and phases of development of the Qadiri and
Naqshbandi orders in Kurdistan / 227

Charts
1. The Barzinji family / 320
2. The Sadat-e Nehri and the shailchs of Barzan / 321
3. The shaikhs of Biyara and Tawela (Hawraman) / 322
4. Important Naqshbandi shaikhs in the Jazira / 323
5. Other influential Naqshbandi families / 324
6. The shaikhs of Palu / 325

Maps
1. Kurdistan
2. The Kurds in the Middle East / 12
3. Dialects spoken in Kurdistan / 21
4. Places and tribes mentioned in chapter 2 / 63
5. The northern Jazira / 95
6. The Qaraqoyunlu and Safavid empires / 139
7. Location of the most important emirates / 158
8. The emirate of Botan at the period of greatest expansion (1846) / 178
9. Important centres of propagation of the Naqshbandi order / 225
10. The area affected by Shaikh Said's revolt / 287
11. The districts in revolt by early April / 288




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