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A practical Kurdish grammar


Auteur : L. O. Fossum
Éditeur : ISELOMS Date & Lieu : 1919, Minneapolis
Préface : L. O. Fossum Pages : 280
Traduction : ISBN :
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 135x195 mm
Code FIKP : Liv. Ang. Ku.Thème : Linguistique

Présentation
Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
A practical Kurdish grammar

A practical Kurdish grammar

L. O. Fossum

I. S. E. L. O. M. S.

Chapter I

The Kurdish alphabet

I. There are thirty-two letters in the Kurdish alphabet. Four of these, namely گ (Gaf), ژ (Zha), چ (Chim), and پ (Pa), are strictly Persian letters, and the other twenty-eight have been borrowed from the Arabic.

2. Form of letters

Name - Unconnected characters - Joined to Letters – Pronunciation and transcription

Final – Medial – Initial

.....


Table des Matières


Table of contents

Introductory remarks / 7-11

Chapter I. - The Kurdish alphabet
Form of Letters / 13
Phonetic values of the letters /15
Consonants / 19
Vowels / 21
Vowel changes / 23
Diphthongs / 26
Accent / 28
Punctuation / 29

Chapter II. - Nouns
Gender / 29
Number / 31
Articles / 32
Declension / 37
Table of declension / 46
Exercise I. / 50

Chapter III. - Adjectives
Position / 51
Comparison / 52
Exercise II. / 53
Numeral adjectives / 53
Cardinals / 53
Ordinals / 56
Fractionals / 57
Multiples / 58
Distributives / 60
Exercise III. / 61

Chapter IV. - Pronouns
Separate personal pronouns / 61
Declension of the separate personal pronouns / 61
Separate possessive pronouns / 64
Suffix pronouns / 64
Declension of a noun with a pronominal suffix / 65
Reflexive pronouns / 66
Declension of a reflexive pronoun / 66
Demonstrative pronouns / 69
Declension of the demonstra tive pronouns / 70
Interrogative pronouns / 70
Declension of the interrogative pronouns / 71
The interrogative pronoun (kieha) with pronominal suffixes / 71
Relative pronouns / 72
Indefinite pronouns / 74
Exercise / 77

Chapter V. - Verbs
The 'Stems' of the Kurdish verbs / 78
Prefixes and suffixes / 79
The personal endings / 81
The negative and prohibitive particles / 84
The tenses of the verb / 86
The Moods of the Verbs / 87
The accent of the verb / 88
Conjugations / 88
The first conjugation / 88
Conjugation of the 'regular intransitive verb' (tirsan) / 89
Exercise V. / 105
Synopsis of an 'irregular intransitive verb' (hatin) / 106
Exercise VI. / 110
Conjugation of the 'irregular intransitive auxiliary verb (bun) 'to be' / 111
A list of intransitive verbs 128
The causal form of the verb / 136
The second conjugation / 137
Conjugation of the 'Regular transitive verb' (khwendin) / 137
Synopsis of an 'irregular transitive verb' (kutin) / 143
The passive voice / 146
A synopsis of the conjugation of a passive verb / 148
A list of transitive verbs / 151
Irregularity of the verb (wistin) / 167
The Impersonal 'must' / 167
Compound verbs / 92
Model of the conjugation of a compound active verb / 169
Model of the conjugation of a compound passive verb / 172
A list of compound verbs / 176
Conjugation of the verb 'to have' / 186

Chapter VI. - Adverbs
Adverbs of manner and quality / 198
Adverbs of number / 199
Adverbs of place and order / 200
Adverbs of time / 203
Adverbs of interrogation / 207
Adverbs of affirmation / 207
Declarative adverbs / 208
Negative adverbs / 208
Miscellaneous adverbs / 208

Chapter VII. - Prepositions
Prepositions that take post positions / 209
Prepositions that are some times joined to the follow ing words / 209
Prepositions that are written separately / 210
Prepositional suffixes / 211

Chapter VIII. - Conjunctions
Copulative conjunctions / 212
Disjunctive conjunctions / 212
Adversative conjunctions / 212
Conditional conjunctions / 213
Causal conjunctions / 213
Conclusive conjunctions / 213

Chapter IX. - Interjections (214-215)

Chapter X. - Formation of Kurdish words
Nouns / 215
Diminutive nouns / 218
Adjectives / 219

Chapter XI. - Kurdish compound words
Words formed of an adjective and a noun / 221
Words formed of a participle and a noun / 222
Words formed of two nouns / 222
Words formed of an adjective and a verbal noun / 223
Words formed of a numeral adjective and a noun / 223
Words formed of a noun and a verbal noun / 224
Words formed by the use of particles / 224
Words formed by repeating the noun / 225
Words Designating relationship / 225

Chapter XII. - Kurdish orthography (226-228)

Chapter XIII. - Miscellaneous
Designation of years / 228
Designation of seasons / 229
Names of the months of the year / 229
Names of the days in the Week / 229
Names of days, present, past, and future / 230
Various periods of day and night / 230
Divisions of time / 231
The human body / 232

Chapter XIV.—Syntax (233-249)
Poetry / 249-253
Short stories / 253-259
Gospel of St. John 1:1-28 / 259-261
Vocabulary / 262-279




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