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The Kurdish Question and Turkey

Auteurs : |
Éditeur : Frank Cass Date & Lieu : 1997, London
Préface : Pages : 238
Traduction : ISBN : 0-7146-4304-1
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 155x235 mm
Code FIKP : Liv. Ang.Thème : Politique

Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
The Kurdish Question and Turkey


The Kurdish question and Turkey: An example of a trans-state ethnic conflict

Kemal Kirişçi and Gareth M. Winrow

Frank Cass

This book provides a comprehensive examination of the Kurdish question in Turkey, tracing its developments from the end of the Ottoman Empire to the present day. The origins and evolution of the Kurdish question are discussed through a close examination of events immediately before and after the founding of the republic of Turkey, when Atatürk and his supporters were confronted with the dual task of building a nation and a modern state. The historical narrative and analysis runs up to the 1990s and focuses on the recent acknowledgement by certain key politicians in Turkey of a 'Kurdish reality'. However, in order to acquire a better understanding of the Kurdish question in Turkey, the regional context must also be taken into account. It is a trans-state ethnic conflict and PKK forces, which are active in Turkey and aim to establish an independent Kurdish state through violent means, have been able to find sanctuary, especially in northern Iraq in Kurdish-populated areas.

Unlike many other works, which have focused on the Kurds, the authors develop their argument by defining and making use of terms such as nation, ethnic group, civic nationalism, ethnic nationalism, minority rights and self-determination. Many commentators agree that ethnic conflict should be resolved by a 'political' rather than a military solution; but what would a political solution to the Kurdish question in Turkey actually entail? A number of possibilities are examined including: secession, federal schemes, the granting of various forms of autonomy, the provision of special rights and further democratization.

Table des Matières


List of tables / vii
Preface / ix
Acknowledgements / xiii
List of abbreviations / xv

1. Introduction / 1
What is a nation? What is an ethnic group? / 5
The formation of nations and ethnic groups / 11
Trans-state ethnic conflicts / 17
The case of the Basques in Spain / 20
The Kurds and Turks in Turkey / 23

2. Minority rights and the issue of self-determination / 31
What is a minority? / 33
What are the rights of a minority? / 35
The problems of minority rights / 42
The Kurds and minority rights in Turkey / 44
What is a 'People'? / 49
What is meant by self-determination? / 51
The development of the principle and right of self-determination / 53
The problems of self-determination / 57
Self-determination and the case of Turkey and the Kurds / 60

3. The origins of the Kurdish question / 67
The partitioning of the Ottoman empire / 67
The struggle for power and the redrawing of frontiers / 69
The emergence of a national resistance movement and the establishment of the Turkish Republic / 75
The failure of the Kurds to form a unified national movement / 78

4. The evolution of the Kurdish question in Turkey / 89
The origins of Turkish nationalism / 89
From Ottoman patriotism to Turkish nationalism - 1919-23 / 91
Turkish nationalism - 1923-38 / 94
Kurdish nationalism - 1923-38 / 103
The development of Kurdish nationalism in post-world war two Turkey/106

5. The Kurdish question and recent developments in Turkey / 119
The Kurdish question in Turkey today: Preliminary remarks / 119
Socio-economic factors and the Kurdish question in Turkey / 122
Violence and the Kurdish question in Turkey / 126
Migration and the Kurdish question in Turkey /133
The role of the Turkish Government and the Kurdish question / 136
The role of political parties in Turkey and the Kurdish question / 140

6. The international dimension of the Kurdish question / 157
The launching of operation provide comfort / 157
Turkey and the situation in Northern Iraq / 161
The Kurdish question and Turkey's relations with its Middle East neighbours / 167
The Kurdish question and Turkey's relations with the West / 171

7. Possible solutions to the Kurdish question / 183
Secession / 185
Consociationalism / 188
Forms of autonomy / 191
Federal schemes / 193
Provision of special rights / 197
Further democratization / 199
Multiculturalism / 203

8. Conclusion / 209
Bibliography / 217
Index / 231

List of tables

4.1 Average participation rates and distribution of votes by political parties in national elections / 106
4.2 Participation rates and the distribution of votes in the 1982 referendum / 111
5.1 Breakdown of estimated Kurdish population by geographical regions in 1990 / 120
5.2 Percentage of illiterate population in 1985 and number of medical doctors in 1990 by regions / 123
5.3 Cars newly registered in Turkey in 1991 and relative per capita GNP in 1979 and 1986 (at 1979 Constant prices) / 123
5.4 The proportion of expenditures over revenues in the national budget between 1986 and 1990 and per capita public investment expenditures for 1983-92 / 124
5.5 Total bank deposits and credits for 1991 and investment certificates for 1992 by regions / 125
5.6 Civilian, PKK and security force casualties between 1984 and 1995 / 126
5.7 Net migration by regions between 1980 and 1990 / 133
5.8 Population in 1990 and 1994 of principal urban centres in the East and South-east affected by migration / 134
5.9 Average participation rates and distribution of votes by political parties for recent elections for country and provinces where more than 15 per cent of the population declared their mother tongue as Kurdish during the 1965 national census / 142

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