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Psychological Consequences of Trauma Experiences


Éditeur : International Free Women's Foundation Date & Lieu : 2007, Rotterdam
Préface : Pages : 184
Traduction : ISBN : 978-90-812050-1-6
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 148x210 mm
Thème : Sociologie

Présentation
Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
Psychological Consequences of Trauma Experiences


Psychological Consequences of Trauma Experiences on the Development of Kurdish Migrant Women in the European Union

Due to courageous efforts of many women rights activists and women’s organisations, many unmentioned taboos in the context of violence against women have been unveiled during the last ten years. Crimes like “honour killings”, domestic violence, female genital mutilation, sexual torture and rape as a war crime have become subjects of public discussions and international campaigns. They influence the biographies of millions of women. The broad spectrum of domestic and institutional gender-based violence and discrimination poses a major risk of traumatic life experiences for women in all patriarchal societies. Still, many aspects of gender based and sexualised violence and especially their correlation with other forms of discrimination yet need to be examined closely in order to combat them effectively.

Against this background, women’s rights organisations and the media have been paying attention to the situation of Kurdish women since the year 2000. Since then newspapers have reported surging suicide rates among women in the Kurdish province of Batman (Turkey), self-burnings by women in the Kurdish regions of Iraq and Iran, or repeated incidences of “honour killings”, which threaten the lives of many Kurdish women in their homelands and in the places of migration. However, these spotlights cannot sufficiently explain the complex patterns of discrimination and forms of violence influencing the lives of Kurdish women. Patriarchal violence within “traditional” social structures is not the only form Kurdish women are confronted with. However, such violence can be as life threatening for Kurdish women as for women in any other patriarchal society. Cultural, national, economic and political oppression directed against the Kurds in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria has determined their lives over nearly four generations now...


On behalf of the International Free Women’s Foundation
Ann-Kristin Kowarsch and Nursel Kilic


Table des Matières

Contents

Preface / 9
About the Editors / 13
Remarks of the External Evaluator / 14
Contributors and Acknowledgments / 17

Chapter I - Introduction / 19
1 General Approach and Background / 19
2 Situation of Kurdish Women in the Four Parts of Kurdistan / 21
2.1 The Kurds – A Stateless Nation’s History Until 1923 / Abstract / 21
2.2 How Kurdish Women Live / 26
2.2.1 Kurdish Women in Turkey and North Kurdistan / 27
2.2.2 Kurdish Women in Iraq and South Kurdistan / 42
2.2.3 Kurdish Women in Iran and East Kurdistan / 50
2.2.4 Kurdish Women in Syria and Southwest Kurdistan / 58
3 Situation of Kurdish Migrant Women in the European Union / 64
3.1 Migration to Europe / 64
3.2 (In-)Visibility And Stigmatisation of National Identity / 66
3.3 Gender Oppression and Kurdish Women’s Emancipation / 67
3.4 Kurdish Migrant Women and Trauma / 69

Chapter II - Results and Findings of the Survey / 71
1 Theoretical Background / 71
1.1 Ethnic Differences and Trauma / 72
1.2 Gender and Trauma / 73
1.3 Internal Versus External Displacement and Trauma / 75
1.4 Acculturation – The Forgotten Factor / 76
1.5 Kurdish Migrant Women in the European Union / 77
1.6 Help-Seeking and Trauma / 81
1.7 PTSD: A Culturally Valid Construct? / 83
1.8 Aim of Study and Research Questions / 85
2 Method / 87
2.1 Design / 87
2.2 Participants and Sample Characteristics / 88
2.3 Instruments / 89
2.4 Procedure / 93
2.5 Statistical Analyses / 96
3 Results / 96
3.1 Sociodemographics and Mental Health / 96
3.2 Migration and Mental Health / 97
3.3 Traumatic Experiences / 99
3.4 Traumatic Experience and Mental Health / 99
3.5 Other Stresses / 100
3.6 Depressive Reactions / 102
3.7 Panic and Anxiety Reactions / 103
3.8 Posttraumatic Stress Reactions / 103
3.9 Coping And Self Reliance / 103
3.10 Cultural Adaptation / 104
3.11 The Impact of Internal Displacement / 104
3.12 The Impact of Domestic Violence / 105
3.13 Predictors of Mental Health Symptoms / 106
3.14 Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder / 106
3.15 Comparisons with Other Samples / 107
3.16 Help-Seeking / 107
3.17 Opinions on ‘Onur’ and ‘Namus’ / 108
4 Discussion / 110
4.1 Main Results on Health, Coping, Acculturation and Help-Seeking / 110
4.2 Risk Profiles – The Impact of Internal Displacement / 111
4.3 Methodological Considerations / 113
4.4 Practical and Clinical Implications / 114

Chapter III – Recommendations / 116

Chapter IV – Appendices: / 119
1. Testimonies of Kurdish Refugee Women / 119
1.1 Case 1 – Diyarbakir/Turkey / 119
1.2 Case 2 – Sweden / 124
1.3 Case 3 – Germany / 125
1.4 Case 4 – Germany / 127
1.5 Case 5 – The Netherlands / 130
2 Feedback of a Woman Participating in the Research / 134
3 Questionnaire / 138

Chapter V – Bibliography / 167




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