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Media, Babylon and Persia


Éditeur : T. Fisher Unwin Date & Lieu : 1889, London
Préface : Pages : 448
Traduction : ISBN :
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 120x175 mm
Code FIKP : Liv. Ang.Thème : Religion

Présentation
Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
Media, Babylon and Persia

Media, Babylon and Persia

Zénaïde A. Ragozin

T. Fisher Unwin

A notable religious survival: The Parsis.- anquetil duperron

I. Among the so-called heathen religions which still claim for their own more than one half of man kind, there is none of greater interest and importance than that of the PARSIS, more generally known under the graphic but misleading name of " Fire-Worshippers." It is certainly not from their numbers this sect derive that interest and importance, for in that respect they form an almost imperceptible unit in the general sum. The entire number of Parsis now living scarcely, if at all, exceeds 100,000, which represents about one in fourteen thousand of the earth's population. But, small as that fragment of humanity is, it is a chip from one of the world's noblest and mightiest nations, the PERSIANS of old, a nation which, though not extinct, and still counted as one of the greater political powers of the East, has degenerated beyond recognition under the…


Table des Matières


Classified contents

I
A notable religious survival: The Parsis Anquetil Duperron / I-16
1. The Parsis, descendants of the Persians and followers of Zoroaster.
2. The Parsis not heathens.
3. Conquest of Persia by the Arabs.
4. Oppression and conversion of the country.
5. Self-exile of the Zoroastrians.
6. Their wanderings and settlements in India.
7. Principal tenets of their religion.
8. Discovery of Parsis manuscripts.
9. Anquetil Duperron and his mission.
10. His-departure for India.
11. Obstacles and hardships.
12. His translation of the Zend-Avesta.
13. He is attacked by William Jones.
14. His mistakes and disadvantages.
15. Eugene Burnouf, the founder of Eranian scholarship.
16. Advance and results of Eranian studies.

II
The Prophet of Erân-The Avesta / 17-33
1. The religions that have sacred books, and their demands.
2. They claim to be supernaturally revealed.
3. The Veda and the Zend-Avesta-the sacred books of the Hindus and Aranians.
4. " Zend-Avesta " a misnomer.
5, 6. "Pehlevi" the Persian language of the Sassanian period.
7. Uncertainty and obscurity of most points concerning the Avesta.
8. Ancient writers on Zoroaster.
9. The " Gâthas " (songs) the oldest portion of the Avesta.
10. Scant information on Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in the Avesta.
11. King Vishtâspa, the friend and follower of Zarathushtra.
12. Loss of the greatest part of the Zoroastrian literature.
13. Survival of some - texts. The parts of the Avesta as we have it.
14. The Bundehesh ; its lateness and its contents.

III
Aryan myths / 34-55
1, 2. Impossibility of invention in a strict sense.
3. Zarathushtra not an inventor, but a reformer.
4. The Hindus and Eranians-sister nations of the Aryan or Indo-European race.
5. The Airyana-Vaêja, or first Aryan home of Eranian tradition.
6. The Rig-Veda, the most ancient sacred book of the Aryan Hindus, and its indications concerning the religion of the primitive Aryas.
7. The powers of nature-the gods of the Aryas.
8. The Aryan sky-gods, Dyâus and Varuna.
9. The Aryan light-god, .Mitra.
10. The Aryan, fire-god, Agni.
11. Aryan-dualism. Gods and demons, light and darkness, rain and drought.
12. Aryan storm-myth.
13. Indra, the god of the thunderbolt.
14. Vritra and Atli, the cloud-fiends.
15, 16. Soma, plant, beverage and drink.
17, 18. Efficacy of sacred texts-Mantra-and of sacrifice.
19. Grossness of some of these conceptions.
20. Richness of Aryan mythical epos.
21. King Yama and the Pitris.
22. Aryan reverence toward the spirits of the departed-the Pitris.
23. The Pitris pass into heroic epos.

IV.
Aryan myths in the Avesta-their allegorical transformation / 56-94
1. Enervating influence of the Indian -climate on the Aryan population.
2. Bracing and hardening influence of the soil and climate of Erân. The nature of Erân all in extremes.
3. It intensifies the feeling of dualism, and develops the battle-myth almost exclusively.
4. Spiritual transformation of Aryan myths in Erân.
5. Ahura-Mazda, the supreme God and Creator, the successor of the Aryan sky-gods.
6. The sacred mountain and paradise of the Eranians.
7. The heavenly sea, the celestial spring, and the tree of life and immortality.
8. Anthropomorism subordinate in Eranian myth.
9, 10. Mithra, the successor of the Aryan Mitra, transparently mythical.
11. His spiritual transformation : the god of light becomes the god of truth.
12. His allegorical attendants: Victory, Obedience, Uprightness, etc.
13. Allegory a distinctive feature of the Eranian mind.
14. The Amesha-Spentas, or " Bountiful Immortals," and their allegorical character.
15. The seven Amesha-Spentas and their functions.
16. Ahura-Mazda is the first of them and has created the others.
17. Atar-Fire-successor of the Aryan Agni.
18. The Hvarenô, or "Kingly Glory,"
19. Tishtrya, the chief of stars and Eranian storm-god.
20. The Fravashis, the successors of the Aryan Pitris.
21, 22.-Desire of the Eranian gods for sacrifice.
23, 24. The Manthra, or sacred text, and the Ahura-Vairya, and their power over the fiends. 25. Angra-Mainyu, or the " Evil One."
26. Yima, the successor of the Aryan Yama ; history in the Avesta.
27. The fall of Yima.
28. The Sagdîd.

V.
The Gâthas-The Yasna of 'Seven Chapters / 95-112
1. Mazdayasnians and Daêvayasnians.
2. Zarathushtra's work.
3. Early period of the Gâthas.
4. The prophet's denunciations of the Daêvayasnians, or Fiend-worshippers.
5. The Aryan, "Devas,"-gods-transformed into the Eranian "Daêvas"-fiends. "Ahura" " and "Ahura."
6. Poetical prologue of the Gâthas.
7. Proclamation of the new religion.
8. Essence of Mazdeism: moral dualism.
9. The hymn of questions.
10. Simplicity and literalness of the Gâthas.
11, 12. The "Yasna of Seven Chapters."Slight deterioriation in the spirit of Mazdeism; formation and return to myth.¤ 13. The Mazdayasnian "Profession of Faith"
14. Marriages between near relations.

VI.
Migrations And Foreign Influences-The Vendidad - Heathen Revival - The Khordeh Avesta / 113-168
1. Character of the Vendidâd
2. The three fundamental principles of the priestly legislation.
3. Power of the priesthood.
4. The Athravans and Zoroastrian sacrifice.
5, 6. Holiness of an agricultural life.
7. Care of the body enjoined ; asceticism denounced.
8, 9. Exposing of the dead.
10. The Dakhma.
11. Questions on purity and pollution.
12. Impurity of the Dakhmas.
13. Treatment of corpses in winter.
14. Sinfulness of burying a corpse.
15. Impure creatures become clean by dying.
16. On sickness.
17. On thriftiness.
18. The Nasu, or corpse-fiend. Rights of purification.
19. Dangerous sinfulness of carrying a corpse alone.
20. On physicians.
21. Sacredness of the dog.
22. Of the cock.-
23. Signs of nomadic life in the Vendidâd.
24. 25. Turanian influences encountered by the Eranians in their westward migration.
26, 28. Traces of these in¬fluences in the Avesta.
29. Hebrew affinities.
30-31. Puzzling penal Legislation.
32. The " Khordeh-Avesta." Heathen Revival.
33, 34. The Chinvat Bridge, and the trials of the soul after death.
35. High standard and beauty of Mazdeism. Its high place among religions.

VII
The last days of Judah / 169-185
1. Affairs in Syria.
2. Necho II. of Egypt plans an invasion of Asia.
3. His campaign in Syria.
4. Battle of Megiddo, and defeat of Josiah of Judah.
5. Battle of Karkhemish ; defeat of Necho by Nebuchadrezzar.
6. The Median and Babylonian empires.
7. Submission of Syria.
8. The prophet Jeremiah.
9. First taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar.
10-13. Jeremiah's preaching and unpopularity.
14. Destruction of Jerusa¬lem.
15, 16. The siege of Tyre. Nebuchadrezzar.

VIII.
Lydia and Asia minor-the balance of, power in the east / 186-222
1-3. The countries of Asia Minor independent of Babylon.
4, 5. Lydia. Kandaules and Gyges.-§ 6. Rock-tombs of Lycia.
7. Languages of Asia Minor.
8. The Hittite element in Asia Minor.
9. Indo-European influences.
10. Hellas, the Doric migration and Ionian colonies.
11. Ionian colonies on the shore of Asia Minor.
12. Mutual influence of the Greeks and Lydians.
13, 14. Invention of coinage by the Lydians.
15. Aggrandizement of Lydia.
16. Her wars against the Greek cities on the sea-shore.
17. War between Lydia and Media.
18. Battle of the Eclipse. Peace and intermarriages.
19. Death of Kyaxares.

IX.
Babylon The Great-The House Êgibi / 223-260
1. Little durability of a balance of powers.
2. Nebuchadrezzar's fear of Media.-Ills works of fortification.
4. The Median Wall.
5. His constructions at Babylon.
6. The great walls.
7. The great bridge and the embankments.
8. The new palace.
9, 10. The Hanging Gardens.
11. The temple of Bel-Marduk.
12. Legends of Semiramis and Nitokris.
13. Nebuchadrezzar's greatness.
14. Herodotus' account of some Babylonian customs.
15. Discovery . of the banking house of Êgibi.
16. Long duration of the firm.
17. 'Their archive of private transactions.
18. Their business operations.
19. Legal transactions in property.
20-22. Tablets of legal precedents.
23, 24. Dignified and independent position of Babylonian women.
25. Private letters.
26. Reading-books, and children's exercise books.
27. Late use of cuneiform writing in contract-tablets.

X.
Media and the rise of Persia / 261-288
1. Astyages succeeds Kyaxares. His insignificance.
2. Splendor of Median royalty.
3. Columnar architecture introduced by the Medes.
4, 5. The palace at Agbatana.
5. Uncertainty concerning the Medes.
7. The Median tribes, Aryan and un-Aryan.
8. The Magi-the priesthood of Media.
9. Their probable un-Aryan origin.
10. Their political power.
11. The Persians. Uncertainty about their origin.
12. Persia properits climate and productions. Character of the Persians.
13. The Persian tribes, Aryan and un-Aryan. Elam and Anshan.
14. Reunion of the tribes under Akhaemenes. Beginnings of the Persian nation.
15. The double line of the Akhaemenian house; the Anshan line, and the Persian line.
16. The newly discovered cylinders of Nabonidus and Kyros.
17. The Rock and Inscription of Behistûn.
18. The early Akhaemenian house reconstructed from these documents.

XI.
Kurush, the king, the Akhzemenian / 289-332
1, 2. Fall of the Median Empire.
3, 4. Herodotus' fabulous account of the birth and childhood of Kyros.
5. Explanation of the account.
6. Probable details.
7. Extension of the Persian Empire in the East.
8. Kyros' vise rule. Fusion of the Medes and Persians.
9. The ruins of Pasargadae , Kyros' royal city in Persia.
10. Persian art, as shown in the monuments at Pasargadae, imitated from Assyrian art.
11. The balance of powers threatened by Kyros.
12. Alyattes of Lydia succeeded by Kroisos
13. Kroisos prepares to make war against Kyros, and seeks alliances.
14. His embassy and gifts to the Delphic temple.
15. Beginning of the war.
16, 17. The fall of Sardis and capture of Kroisos.
18. Attempted self-immolation of Kroisos. His rescue from the pyre.
19. Subjection of the Ionian cities and the rest of Asia Minor.
20. First and unsuccessful attack on Babylon. Complete subjection of Elam. Susa one of the capitals of the Persian empire.
21. The successors of Nebuchadrezzar at Babylon. Accession of Nabonidus.
22. He indisposes the priesthood of Babylon. First and unsuccessful attempt of Kyros.
23. The priesthood call in Kyros.
24. The Jews support him.
25. Surrender of Babylon and triumphal entry of Kyros.
26. He con¬ciliates the priests and delivers the Jews.
27. Obscurity of his last years, and death.

Appendix to chapter XI. / 333-343
The last discoveries at Susa.

XII.
Kambyses / 529-522 B.C. / 344-360
1. Accession of Kambyses.
2. His unfortunate nature and jealousy of his brother Bardiya.
3. He plans the conquest of Egypt.
4.—Preparations on both sides.
5. Assassination of Bardiya.
6. Battle of Pelusion and conquest of Egypt.
7.—Kambyses' religious tolerance and mild rule in Egypt.
8.—His reluctance to return and further campaigns.
9. Tidings of an impostor person¬ating Bardiya, and of a general revolt. Kambyses confesses his crime and puts an end to his life.
10. Record of the event in the Behistûn inscription.

XIII.
Dareios I., the son op Hystaspes / 522-485 B.C.
First period: Civil wars / 361-383
1-3. Gaumata the Magian slain by the seven Persian princes. Accession of Dareios I.
4. The Behistûn in scription on the subject.
5. Dareios a Mazdayasnian.
6. The Persians not strictly followers of the Vendîdâd.
7. Breaking out of the civil war.
8. Revolt of nine provinces.
9. Revolt of Media.
10. Capture of the Median pretender.
11. End of the civil war.
12. Sculptures at Behistûn.
13. List of nations.

XIV.
Dareios I. Second period: years of peace / 384-411
1. Dareios' wise home rule.
2. His system of taxation.
3. Construction of roads, and institution of a postal service.
4. The Nile canal and uniformity of coinage.
5. Susa and Persepolis.
6. Great platform at Persepolis
7. Stairs at Persepolis.
8. The palace of Dareios.
9. The Hall of Hundred Columns.
10. The audience-hall at Susa, in the Book of Esther.
11. Buildings of Xerxes at Persepolis.
12. Conjectures about the walls of the palaces.
13, The royal tombs at Persepolis.

XV.
Daretos I. Third period: foreign wars / 412-433
1. Dareios begins a series of foreign wars.
2. The knowledge of the Greeks about Scythia.
3, 4. Herodo¬tus' description of Scythia.
5, 6. Of the Scythians.
7. Dareios bridges and crosses the Bosporus and the Danube.
8, 9. His campaign in Scythia.
10. His retreat and return across the Danube and the Hellespont
11. Expeditions in India and Africa. Revolt and chastisement of the Greek cities in Asia and Thracia, Preparations against Greece

Index / 435




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