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Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, n°I


Nivîskar : |
Weşan : Holmes & Meier Publishers Tarîx & Cîh : 1982, New York & London
Pêşgotin : Rûpel : 466
Wergêr : ISBN : 0-8419-0519-3
Ziman : ÎngilîzîEbad : 145x220 mm
Hejmara FIKP : Liv. Ang. Bra. Chr. 1678-1Mijar : Ol

Danasîn
Naverok Pêşgotin Nasname PDF
Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, n°I


Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire
The Functioning of a Plural Society

Benjamin Braude
Bernard Lewis

Holmes & Meier Publishers

For hundreds of years the Ottomans ruled a territory of great ethnic and religious diversity. How did this vast empire stretching from the Balkans to the Sahara endure so long? The contributors to this two-volume work examine the political and social arrangements that made possible the effective functioning of a polyethnic, multireligious society for more than four hundred years.
Written by eminent scholars from the Middle East, Europe, and North America, these papers soberly and objectively weigh the fundamental question of religion and community in the Middle East. Among the topics explored are: the nature of contact between Muslims and non- Muslims; the organizations and institutions of Christians and Jews; the relations between communal leaders and the state; and the interaction between the West and non-Muslim peoples. Using heretofore neglected sources in Arabic, Turkish, Greek, Hebrew, and Armenian, these essays provide a vital background for students of the area and its three great religions, as well as for those interested in the problems of minorities in plural societies.

Benjamin Braude is assistant professor of history at Boston College and research associate of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Harvard University. Bernard Lewis is Cleveland E. Dodge Professor of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton and a long-term member of the Institute
for Advanced Studies.


Table des Matières


Contents


Volume One: The Central Lands
Abbreviations and Note on Transliteration / viii
Acknowledgments / ix
Introduction Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis / 1

Part I. The Islamic Background
1. The Concept of Dhimma in Early Islam C. E. Bosworth / 37
Part II. The Early History of the Non-Muslim Communities under Ottoman Rule
2. Transformation of Zimmi into Askeri İ. Metin Kunt / 55
3. Foundation Myths of the Millet System Benjamin Braude / 69
4. The Rise of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople Kevork B. Bardakjian / 89
5. The Leadership of the Ottoman Jews in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Mark A. Epstein / 101
6. Ottoman Policy toward the Jews and Jewish Attitudes toward the Ottomans during the Fifteenth Century Joseph R. Hacker / 117
7. Foreign Merchants and the Minorities in Istanbul during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Robert Mantran / 127
Part III. The Structure of the Non-Muslim Communities in the Eighteenth Century and After
8. Millets and Nationality: The Roots of the Incongruity of Nation and State in the Post-Ottoman Era Kemal H. Karpat / 141
9. The Dual Role of the Armenian Amira Class within the Ottoman Government and the Armenian Millet (1750-1850) Hagop Barsoumian / 171
10. The Greek Millet in the Ottoman Empire Richard Clogg / 185
11. Jewish Communities in Turkey during the Last Decades of the Nineteenth Century in the Light of the Archives of the Alliance Israelite Universelle Paul Dumont / 209
12. The Millet System and its Contribution to the Blurring of Orthodox National Identity in Albania Stavro Skendi / 243
Part IV. The Role of Christians and Jews in Ottoman Life during the Nineteenth Century and After
13. The Transformation of the Economic Position of the Millets in the Nineteenth Century Charles Issawi / 261
14. Trade and Merchants in Nineteenth-Century Trabzon: Elements of Ethnic Conflict A. Uner Turgay / 287
15. The Millets as Agents of Change in the Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Empire Roderic H. Davison / 319
16. The Acid Test of Ottomanism: The Acceptance of Non-Muslims in the Late Ottoman Bureaucracy Carter V. Findley / 339
17. Minorities and Municipal Reform in Istanbul, 1850-1870 Steven Rosenthal / 369
18. Non-Muslim Representatives in the First Constitutional Assembly, 1876-1877 Enver Ziya Karal / 387
19. Unionist Relations with the Greek, Armenian, and Jewish Communities of the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1914 Feroz Ahmad / 401
Part V. Sources
20. Ottoman Archival Materials on Millets Halil Inalcik / 437

Volume two: The Arabic-Speaking lands

Abbreviations and Note on Transliteration / viii
Acknowledgments / ix
Introduction Benjamin Braude / 1
1. On the Realities of the Millet System: Jerusalem in the Sixteenth Century Amnon Cohen / 7
2. The Christian Population of the Province of Damascus in the Sixteenth Century Muhammad Adnan Bakhit / 19
3. On Melkite Passage to the Unia: The Case of Patriarch Cyril al-Za'im (1672-1720) Robert M. Haddad / 67
4. Communal Conflict in Ottoman Syria during the Reform Era: The Role of Political and Economic Factors Moshe Ma'oz / 91
5. Communal Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Lebanon Samir Khalaf / 107
6. The Two Worlds of Assaad Y. Kayat KamaI S. Salibi / 135
7. Non-Muslim Communities in Arab Cities Dominique Chevallier / 159
8. Image and Self-Image of the Syrians in Egypt:
From the Early Eighteenth Century to the Reign of Muhammad ' All Thomas Philipp / 167
9. The Political Situation of the Copts, 1798-1923 Doris Behrens-Abouseif / 185

Bibliography / 207
Index / 225




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