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The Nestorians and Their Rituals - II

Éditeur : Darf Date & Lieu : 1987, London
Préface : Pages : 426
Traduction : ISBN : 1 85077 167 7
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 150x230mm
Code FIKP : Liv. Eng. Bad. Nes. (2) N° 2488Thème : Général

Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
The Nestorians and Their Rituals - II

The Nestorians and Their Rituals - II

Percy George Badger


The Nestorian Church is the name given to the ancient Christian community of the Assyrians and their converts, first founded in the fourth century. Though surviving for 800 years, and in that time producing many remarkable theologians and philosophers, the church was practically wiped out by the Tatar hordes at the end of the fourteenth century. Thereafter only a remnant of the western community survived, confined to the area then known as northern Mesopotamia.
By the mid nineteenth century, churchmen in England were anxious to secure what knowledge they could of this religious group, seeking also to prevent its complete demise. It was for this reason that George Percy Badger was sent as delegate to the Eastern Churches in 1842-4, and again in 1850, travelling widely throughout that inhospitable region within the borders of modem day Turkey, Iraq and Syria.
The present work, first published in 1852 in two volumes, and here reproduced in facsimile, contains a unique and detailed account of the rituals and practices of the Nestorian Church and other significant religious groups of that region.

Table des Matières

Contents of Volume II

Chapter I
Introductory. Reasons why the Nestorians should be heard in self-defence.— -Nature of their heresy. 2 ; God’s disapprobation manifested towards them. 3 ; Supposed by some to hold the true Catholic doctrine, 4 ; Progress of the Church retarded by their estrangement, ib. ; Their doctrines hitherto but superficially investigated, 5.

Chapter II.
Writings of the Nestorians.—Not strictly confined to divinity, 8 ; Their intercourse with Grecian, Persian, and Arabian authors, 9 ; Their Syriac compositions, 10 j Cause of the dearth of their ancient literature, 11; Its use at the present day, 14 ; Character of Nestorian and Jacobite alphabets, ib.

Chapter III.
Of the hours of prayer and of the rituals and liturgies of the Nestorians.— Ancient order of the hours of prayer, 16; Cause of their change, 17 ; Reasons for their observance, 10 ; Service books, the Euanghelion, Shlieha, Karyane, and Turgâma, 19; The Daweedha, or Psalter, 21; Its use at different seasons, 22; The Khudhra and Kash kôl, ib.; The Kdham oo d’Wathar, Gezza, Aboo Haleem, and Baootha d’Ninwâyé, 23 ; The Taxa d’Amadha, 24 ; Liturgies of Nestorius, Theodore and the Apostles, ib ; The Kthawa d'Burrakha, or Book of Matrimony, ib.; The Kahneita and Anneedha, Burial Services, ib.; The Taza d’Sia-meedha, or Ordination Service, ib. ; The Khamees and Warda, collections of hymns, 25 ; The Taxa d’Hoosaya, or Office of Pardon, ib.; Striking uniformity in the manuscript rituals, ib.

Chapter IV.
Plan of the following inquiry into the tenets of the Nestorians.—Their external forms useful in preserving essentials, 27 ; Want of a standard confession of faith, 28.

Chapter V.
Of faith in the Holy Trinity.—Quotations from the Khudhra, 30; and from the Gezza, 31 ; Mar Abd Yeshua and Sir Isaac Newton on the attributes of God, it.

Chapter VI.
Of the Word of God, which was made Very Man.—Anthem from the Khudhra, 33 ; Quotations from the Gezza, 34 ; From the Khudhra and Gezza, 35 ; Hymn from the Khamees, 38 ; The Creed of the Nestorians by Abd Yeshua, 49 ; Quotation from the Wardn, on the attributes of the Blessed Virgin, 51; Remarks, Quotations, and notes on the Incarnation, 57 ; Mosheim and Nelson on the title “ QtdTo/toi” of the Blessed Virgin, 69 ; How understood by the Nestorians, 70.

Chapter VII.
Of the going down of Christ into hell.—Quotations from the Khudhra, 72 ; Remarks, it.

Chapter VIII.
Of the Resurrection of Christ.—Quotations from the Khudhra, 75 ; Remarks, 76.

Chapter IX.
Of the Holy Ghost.—Quotations from the Nestorian Nicene Creed and the Gezza, 78; Remarks, id.; Quotations from the Gezza against those impugning the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, 80.

Chapter X.
Of the sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for salvation.—Quotations from the Gezza, Warda, and Sinhadbs, 82 ; the books received by the Nestorians, it. ; Hymn from the Warda, 83 ; Holy Scripture, the proof of the Nestorian faith, 84 ; Read by the laity, 85 ; The Bibles supplied by the London Bible Society, it.; The divisions of the Nestorian Bible, 87.

Chapter XI.
Of the Old Testament.—Extracts from the Warda, Sinhadbs, and Aboo Haleem, 89; Remarks und quotations, 99.

Chapter XII.
Of the three Creeds.—The Nicene Creed, the only one used by the Nestorians, 92 ; Their ignorance of the other two, it.

Chapter XIII.
Of original or birth sin.—Extracts from the Gezza and Khudhra, 94 ; and from the Warda, 96; Remarks and Quotations, it.

Chapter XIV.
Of free-will.—Quotations from the Khudhra and Kdham oo d’Wathar, 98,99; the doctrine of our Article held by the Nestorians, ii.

Chapter XV.
Of the justification of man.—Quotations from the Warda, Khudhra, and Khftmees, 101.

Chapter XVI.
Of good works —Quotations from the Khudhra, Khamees, and Liturgies, 103 ; Remarks on the Nestorian doctrine of justification and good works, 104; Extracts from the Homily on Alms-Deeds, 105 ; and from the Khudhra and Warda, 106.

Chapter XVII.
Of works before justification.—The doctrine of the Nestorians, 109; Corroborative extracts thereon, 110.

Chapter XVIII.
Of works of supererogation.—Quotation from Poem on the Khamees, 111 j The error unknown by name to the Nestorians, 112.

Chapter XIX.
Of Christ alone without sin.—Quotations from the Warda, 113 ; remarks, 114.

Chapter XX.
Of sin after baptism.—Quotations from the Khudhra and Kdham oo d’ Wathar, 115; remarks, 116.

Chapter XXI.
Of predestination and election.—The doctrine not noticed in the Nestorian writings, 117 ; Prayer from the Khudhra, 118.

Chapter XXII.
Of obtaining Eternal Salvation only by the name of Christ.—Quotations from the Khfimees, Khudhra, and liturgy of Theodorus, 119; Prayers for ven-geauce upon unbelievers, 120.

Chapter XXIII.
Of the Church.—Import of the term, 121 ; Quotations from the Khudhra, id.; Remarks, 122.

Chapter XXIV.
Of the authority of the Church.—Quotations from the Khudhra, Sinhados, and Remarks, 124.

Chapter XXV.
Of the authority of General Councils.—Mar Abd Yeshua on the Councils of Nice and Chalcedon. 126; That of Ephesus, not formally condemned in the Nestorian Rituals, ib.; How the Easterns came to be styled Nestorians, 127; Quotations from the Khudhra, 129.

Chapter XXVI.
Of Purgatory.—The Nestorian Rituals repugnant to the doctrine, but teach the efficacy of prayers for the dead, 130 ; Extracts from the Sinhados, «4.; Pardons or indulgences repugnant to the Nestorian doctrines, 131; Censure of Mar Abd Yeshua thereon, ib. ; Their aversion to images, 132 ; The symbol of the cross highly venerated by them, ii.; Tbeir festival in its commemoration, ib.; Quotations from the Gezza, Khudhra, and Sinhados, 133 ; The use of the Cross among the Nestorians, 135 ; Extracts showing that no idolatry is held by them, ib. ; Of relics, 136 ; Nestorian belief concerning the remains of martyrs and saints, ib.; Quotations from the Kdham oo d’Wathar, 137 ; Invocation of saints, 138 ; Quotations from Kdham oo d’Wathar, Khudhra and Gezza, ib.

Chapter XXVII.
Of ministering in the congregation.—Quotations from the Sinhados, 140 ; Remarks, 144.

Chapter XXVIII.
Of speaking in the congregation in such a tongue as the people understandeth. —Language of the ancient Nestorian Rituals, 146 ; But partially understood at the present day, ib.; The ancient Nestorians anxious for the progress of education and the study of the Holy Scriptures, 147 ; Canon from the Sinhados, ib.

Chapter XXIX.
Of the Sacraments.—That they are not bare signs, 148 ; Quotations from the Khudhra, ib. ; Mar Abd Yeshua on the subject, 149; Number of the Sacraments not determined by the Nestorian Rituals, 150 : Said to be seven by some of their authors, ib.; Examination of this discrepancy, ib.; Tradition tending to prove their belief in two only, 151 ; Confirmation, how regarded by the Nestorians, 153; Mar Abd Yeshua on the subject, ib.; Of penance, 154; Confession and absolution, ib. ; In perfect agreement with our own Rituals, ib. ; Auricular confession unknown to the Nestorians, ib.; General practice with regard to confession, ib. ; Form of absolution still in use among them, 155 ; Of orders, matrimony, and extreme unction, 160 ; Of the holy leaven, 161 ; Ingredients of the sacramental bread, ib.; Of the sign of the life-giving cross, 162.

Chapter XXX.
Of the unworthiness of the ministers, which hinders not the effect of the Sacraments.—The Nestorians agree with the above doctrine, 163 ; Mar Abd Yeshua and extract from ancient MS. on the subject, ib.

Chapter XXXI.
Of Baptism.—Quotations from the Gezza and Khudhra, 165 ; Remarks, 166.

Chapter XXXII.
Of the Lord’s Supper.—Quotations from the Khudhra, Warda and Khamees, 167 ; Believed by the Nestorians to be a real partaking of the body and blood of Christ, 169 ; On the change of the elements, ib. ; Transubstantiation unknown by name to the Nestorians, 170; Additional extracts in support thereof, ib. ; The body of Christ eaten by them through faith, 172 ; Extracts proving the same, ib.; No elevation of the elements, ib.

Chapter XXXIII.
Of the wicked who eat not of the body of Christ in the use of the Lord's Supper.—Agreement of the Nestorians with the teaching of this article, 173; Extracts from the Khudhra, ib.

Chapter XXXIV.
Of both kinds.—Both administered to the Nestorians, except in a few instances, 174.

Chapter XXXV.
Of the one oblation of Christ finished upon the cross.—Extracts from the Khamees and Khudhra, 175 ; Remarks, 176 ; Quotation from Mar Abd Yeshua, ib.-, The Eucharist never celebrated without communion, 177; Of prayers for the dead, ib.

Chapter XXXVI.
Of the Marriage of Priests.—Marriage lawful for Nestorian Priests and Deacons, 178; Convents of the ancient Nestorians, ib. ; None existing at the present day, ib. ; Of Monks and Nuns who shall fall from their vows, 179; No such establishment as nunneries among the Nestorians, ib.; Marriage prohibited to their Bishops, Metropolitans, and Patriarchs, 180 ; The restriction in opposition to the Canons in the Sinhadbs, ib.; Mar Abd Yeshua on “ Matrimony and Virginity," 181.

Chapter XXXVII.
Of Excommunicate Persons, how they are to be avoided.—This ecclesiastical discipline maintained in full vigour by the Nestorians, 182; Instance related by Dr. Grant, ib.; Extract from the Sinhadbs, ib.

Chapter XXXVIII.
Of the Traditions of the Church.—Traditions and Ceremonies not permitted to be changed by private judgment, 185 ; Synodal decrees, id.

Chapter XXXIX.
Of the Homilies.—Their doctrines having been already considered, the Fasts of the Nestorians are treated of in this chapter, 187 ; Canons on the subject, id.; Days of fasting and abstinence, id.; Strictly observed by the Nestorians, 188 ; The Fast from which laymen are exempt, id.

Chapter XL.
Of the Consecration of Bishops and Ministers.—The doctrine of the Apostolical Succession maintained by the Nestorians, 189 j Extract from the Khudhra, id.; Mar Abd Yeshua on the Orders of Ministers, 190 ; The Episcopate, id. j Bishop Onderdonk of America on the subject, id. ; The Patriarchate, 191 j Qualifications for the office, id.; Formerly not of the same family, and how elected, id.; Election of Bishops, 192 ; Quotations from the Sinhados and remarks, 193.

Chapter XLI.
Office for the administration of Holy Baptism according to the Nestorian Ritual.

Chapter XLII.
Liturgy of Nestorius.—Chaldman alterations of the Nestorian Liturgies, and the periods of their celebration, 241.

Chapter XLIII.
Taxa d’Burrakha or the Form of the Solemnization of Matrimony.—The Espousals, 244 ; The Marriage, 245 ; The blessing of the bridal attire, 254 ; The benediction of the colours and crowns, 258; The coronation, id.; The settingup of the bridal chamber, 271 ; Persons with whom it is unlawful to marry, 277 ; Celebration of matrimony without a priest, 280 ; Prayer over the bride forty days after marriage, id.; The churching of women, id.

Chapter XLIV.
The Kahneita, or the Order for the burial of the Priests.—First Moutwa or Cathisma, 283; Third Moutwa, 289 ; Processional Chant, 297; The consolation, 316 ; How unbaptized children are to be interred, 321.

Chapter XLV.
The Form for the Ordination of the Clergy by the imposition of hands.—The ordering of Readers, 322 ; Of Sub-deacons, 324 ; Of Deacons, 325 ; Of Presbyters, 330 ; Of an Archdeacon, 336; Of the Patriarch’s Archdeacon, 339 ; Of Bishops, 340 ; Of Metropolitans, 347 ; Consecration of churches, 349 ; Restoration of offending Priests, 350.

Chapter XLVI.
Conclusion.—Character of the Nestorian Theology, 351 ; Grounds for Nesto-rian claims upon our sympathy, ib.; Difficulties in the way, 352 ; Course of proceeding recommended, ib. ; Rough sketch of proposal, 353 ; Benefits of intercommunion with them, 357.

Appendix A.
Index of Biblical and Ecclesiastical writings drown up by Mar Abd Yeshua.— Old Testament Scriptures, 361 ; New Testament Scriptures, 362 ; Writings of the Western Fathers, 363 ; Writings of the Syrian Fathers, 367.

Appendix B.
A Translation of The Jewel by Mar Abd Yeshua. —Part I. Of God.—That there is a God, and that the world is created, made, and temporal, 382 ; That God is one and not many, 383; That God is Eternal, 384 ; That God is incomprehensible, ib.; Of the Trinity, 385.

Part II.— On the Creation.—On the Creation of the Universe, 388 ; On man’s first sin, 389; On the Divine Laws and Ordinances, and of the Prophets, 390 ; Prophecies concerning Christ, 391.

Part III. On the Christian Dispensation.—On the Advent of Christ, and of His union [of the divine with the human nature], 393 ; On the life and actions of Christ, 394 ; On tiie truth of Christianity, 395 ; On the different Sects, 397; Refutation of the foregoing Creeds, 400 ; On the title “ Mother of God,” 401 ; Of four Persons, 402 ; Of the Church, ib.

Part IV. Of the Church Sacraments. On the number of the Church Sacraments, 404 ; Of the Priesthood, 405 ; Of Baptism, 407 ; Of the Oil of Unction, ib. ; Of the Oblation, 408 ; Of the Holy Leaven, 409 ; Of Absolution and Repentance, 411 ; Of Matrimony and of Virginity, 412.

Part V. On the theory of those things which prefigure the world to come, of worshipping towards the East, 413 ; On the worship of the Lord’s Cross, 414 ; Of the holy First Day of the Week, and of the Festivals commemorative of our Lord, 415 ; Of Friday, 416 ; Of Fasting, Prayer, and Almsgiving, 417 ; Of the Girdle, 418 ; Of the Resurrection, the Judgment to come, and Everlasting Life, 419.

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