La bibliothèque numérique kurde (BNK)
Retour au resultats
Imprimer cette page

The Economy of Iraq (1950-2010)


Auteur :
Éditeur : Greenwood Press Date & Lieu : 1994, London
Préface : Pages : 188
Traduction : ISBN : 0-313-29186-1
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 155x230mm
Code FIKP : Liv. Eng. Nas. Eco. N° 5016Thème : Économie

Présentation
Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
The Economy of Iraq (1950-2010)

The Economy of Iraq (1950-2010)

Abbas Alnasrawi

Greenwood Press

One of the most striking features of the world oil map is the concentration of crude oil reserves in a few countries. In the Western Hemisphere, most of the oil reserves are concentrated in the United States, Venezuela, Mexico, and Canada. In the Eastern Hemisphere, they are concentrated in the former Soviet Union, North Africa, and the Middle East. Because of the stage of their economic development, the United States and the former Soviet Union developed their oil industries primarily to meet their countries’ own demands for energy. But since other oil-producing countries have a very low indigenous demand for energy, their oil resources were developed to meet world demand for oil-mainly that of the industrialized countries of Western Europe, Japan, and later on the United States.
Foreign capital and technology had to be called upon ...


Table des Matières


Contents

Tables / xi
Acknowledgments    xiii
Introduction / xv

1. The Evolution of Iraq’s Oil Industry / 1
Oil Concessions in Iraq and the Agreement of1952 / 2
The Growth of Output and Revenue / 2
Oil Output / 3
The Pricing of Iraq Crude Oil to 1950 / 4
Price Developments, 1950-1960 / 6
Nationalization and Oil Price Developments in the
OPEC Era / 8
The 1973 Oil Price Revolution / 10
The Emergence of Iraq's National Oil Industry / 12
Notes / 13

2. Oil and Development under the Monarchy, 1950-1958 / 17
The Development Board and Its Programs, 1950-1958 / 17
Planned versus Actual Development Spending,
1951/52-1957/58 / 19
Highlights of Allocations for Development, 1950-1958 / 21
The Development Board and the Agricultural Sector / 24
The Development Board and the Industrial Sector / 29
Notes / 33

3. Oil and Development Planning, 1958-1968 / 35
Development Planning in the Qasim Era, 1958-1963 / 36
Development Planning under the Are f Brothers / 43
The Economy’s Past Performance as a Guide for the Plan / 45
Sectoral Expenditure under the FYP / 46
Actual Performance of the FYP / 49
Notes / 52

4. The Baath Party and Its National Development Plans / 55
Evolution of Arab Nationalism / 55
The Political Economy of Arab Nationalism    58
The National Development Plan, 1970/71-1974/75 / 62
The Strategy of the Plan / 62
Quantitative Goals of the Plan / 63
Assessment of the National Development Plan / 68
The 1975 Investment Program / 71
Development Planning after 1975 / 72
Notes / 75

5. The Iran-Iraq War and the Demise of Development / 79
The War and the Iraqi Economy / 79
The War, Iraq’s Oil, and Saudi Arabia's Oil Policy / 83
The War and the Deterioration of the Iraqi Economy / 87
The War and the End of Development / 89
War Labor Mobilization and the Economy / 91
Military Expenditures and Iraq's GNP and Oil Revenue / 94
The War and Military and Nonmilitary Imports / 95
Privatization under War Conditions / 96
An Estimate of the Cost of the Destruction / 99
Notes / 103

6. The Invasion of Kuwait and the Destruction of Development / 105
Abundance of Problems versus Scarcity of Resources / 105
Government Borrowing, Money Supply, and Inflation / 106
The Emerging Problem of External Debt / 109
Military Industries and the Use of Scarce Resources / 109
OPEC Failure and the Iraq-Kuwait Oil Confrontation / 111
The Invasion and the Economic Sanctions / 118
An Estimate of Iraq's Human Losses / 120
An Estimate of Iraq's Economic Losses / 121
Impact on Personal Income, Consumption, and
Cost of Living / 123
Notes / 124

7. Iraq’s Economic Development, 1950-1990: An Assessment / 127
Evolution of the New State / 127
Regional and International Context    130
Ideological Dimensions / 133
An Assessment of Iraq's Development, 1950-1990 / 136
Development Problems, 1958-1980 / 139
Development Problems, 1980-1993 / 145
Notes / 147

8. What Economic Future for Iraq? / 151
Sanctions, Reparations, Debt, and Reconstruction / 151
The $586-Billion Question / 153
An Estimate of Oil Revenue to 2010 / 153
The Burden of Foreign Deb t / 157
The Burden of War Reparations / 158
United Nations Sanctions / 158
Other Claims on Scarce Resources / 159
The Continued Crisis of the Economy / 160
The Problem of Hyperinflation and the Exchange Rate / 164
What Economic Future for Iraq? / 167
Notes / 168

Selected Bibliography / 171
Index / 183

Tables

1.1 Oil Revenue, Oil Output, Gross Domestic Product, and Population, 1950-1990 / 11

2.1 General Programs of Development Board’s Projects / 18
2.2 Total Planned and Actual Development Expenditures and Revenues, 1951/52-1957/58 / 20

3.1 Provisional and Detailed Economic Plans / 38
3.2 Planned and Actual Development Expenditures, 1958/59-1962/63 / 40
3.3 Allocated, Budgeted, and Actual Expenditure and Revenue: Five-Year Plan, 1965/66-1969/70 / 47
3.4 Projected and Actual Growth Rates under the Five-Year Economic Plan, 1965-1969 / 50

4.1 NDP: Annual Average Sectoral Growth Rates, 1970-1974 / 64
4.2 NDP: Projected Total Increases in Certain Economic Indicators, 1970-1974 / 65
4.3 NDP: Sectoral Allocations and Revenue, 1970-1974 / 65
4.4 NDP: Aggregate Sectoral Distribution of Planned Expenditures, 1970-1974 / 67
4.5 NDP: Distribution of Development Projects by Sector, 1970-1974 / 69
4.6 NDP: Revised Allocations, Actual Expenditures, and Revenue, 1970-1974 / 71
4.7 NDP: Target and Actual Values of Certain Economic Indicators, 1974 / 72
4.8 Sectoral Allocations under Annual Plans, 1976-1980 / 74

5.1 Investment Programs and Annual Plans, 1976-1983 / 82
5.2 Labor Force and Armed Forces, 1970-1988 / 92
5.3 Military Expenditures, Oil Revenue, and GDP, 1970-1989 / 93
5.4 Nonmilitary and Military Imports, 1970-1989 / 96
5.5 Changing Composition of GDP, 1975-1988 / 101

6.1 Estimates of Labor Earnings in Iraq, August 1991,
Compared with Various Benchmarks / 124

7.1 Planned and Actual Development Expenditures, 1951-1980 / 142
8.1 Gross Domestic Product and GDP per Capita in Constant 1980 Prices, 1950-1993 / 152




Fondation-Institut kurde de Paris © 2022
BIBLIOTHEQUE
Informations pratiques
Informations légales
PROJET
Historique
Partenaires
LISTE
Thèmes
Auteurs
Éditeurs
Langues
Revues