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The Creation of Iraq

Éditeur : Columbia University Press Date & Lieu : 2004, New York
Préface : Gary Sick Pages : 196
Traduction : ISBN : 0-231-13292-1
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 120x210 mm
Code FIKP : 2876Thème : Histoire

Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
The Creation of Iraq

The Creation of Iraq, 1914–1921
Edited by Reeva Spector Simon and Eleanor H. Tejirian

Shortly after World War I, the state we know today as Iraq was invented. Some eighty years later, the United States and a few other countries invaded Iraq with the declared objective of reinventing at least its system of government. The editors of this volume (who also organized the conference that gave birth to it) chose to explore the history of the creation of Iraq, but they also implicitly posed the question of whether the British experience in the early twentieth century had special meaning and lessons for the invaders and liberators of the twenty first.

In fact, while there were many parallels between the two, it was also striking how many differences there were. The Iraq of 1915–1925 was a much more primitive place. Iraq in 2003 had an efficient and functioning  ureaucracy. Although that bureaucratic machinery was at times used for nefarious purposes, it nevertheless provided an invaluable base of expertise and experience that was almost entirely absent when the British marched north to Baghdad. By 2003 Iraq was no longer an illiterate society; mass education had penetrated almost every corner of the populace. By the twenty-first century, oil had become the centerpiece of the Iraqi economy. In the 1920s it was not. Oil changes things. It is typically regarded as a blessing, since it generates great revenue. But oil also has a perverse effect on countries that have it, since money goes directly into the central state coffers with little or none going directly to the people. It frees the government from dependence on the popular will, and thereby tends to discourage democratic behavior and accountability. It is as hard today to predict the effect oil wealth will have on the new Iraq as it would have been to predict the prospect of oil revenues in the 1920s.

Table des Matières


Introduction / 1
Reeva Spector Simon and Eleanor H. Tejirian
1. The View from Basra: Southern Iraq’s Reaction to War and
Occupation, 1915–1925 / 19
Judith S. Yaphe

2. The View from Baghdad / 36
Reeva Spector Simon

3. Mosul Questions: Economy, Identity, and Annexation / 50
Sarah Shields

4. The Evolution of the Iran-Iraq Border / 61
Lawrence G. Potter

5. A Kemalist Gambit: A View of the Political Negotiations in the
Determination of the Turkish-Iraqi Border / 80
David Cuthell

6. Kurds and the Formation of the State of Iraq, 1917–1932 / 95
M. R. Izady
vi Contents

7. The Oil Resources of Iraq: Their Role in the Policies of the
Great Powers / 110
George E. Gruen

8. Russia from Empire to Revolution: The Illusion of the Emerging
Nation State in the South Caucasus and Beyond / 125
Peter Sinnott

9. Britain, France, and the Diplomatic Agreements / 134
David Fromkin

10. The United States, the Ottoman Empire, and the
Postwar Settlement / 146
Eleanor H. Tejirian

Postscript / 162
Appendix: The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 / 165
Additional Readings / 169
List of Contributors / 171
Index / 175

List of Maps
Frontispiece. Sykes-Picot Agreement (Middle East)
4.1. Iran-Iraq Boundary / 64
4.2. Iran-Iraq Boundary in the Shatt al Arab / 73
6.1. Sykes-Picot Agreement (Iraq) / 97
6.2. Provisions of the Treaty of Sevres / 101
6.3. Treaty of Lausanne / 103
6.4. Mandates in Arabia / 106

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