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The Kurds and Kurdistan

Éditeur : Zed Books Date & Lieu : 1980, London
Préface : Maxime Rodinson Pages : 246
Traduction : Michael Pallis ISBN : 0-905762-69-X
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 140x210 mm
Code FIKP : Gen. 454Thème : Histoire

Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
The Kurds and Kurdistan


The Kurds and Kurdistan

Middle East Series
People Without a Country is a unique and comprehensive book that covers the whole history of the Kurdish question over the past sixty years. The 15 million Kurds are the largest nation in the world with no state of their own. Ever since the old principalities of Kurdistan were carved up between Iran, Iraq, and Turkey following the First World War, the Kurds have struggled ceaselessly for independence, or at least autonomy. In Turkey, Iran and Syria today, their identity is still denied and they are not even allowed to teach in their own language. Their history is one of constant revolts and bloody repression, massacres, deportations, and renewed insurrection. As recently as 1979, fighting between the Kurds of Iran and the new government in Tehran flared up and this is the subject of a Post-script by Gerard Chaliand written especially for this book. The Kurdish national question undoubtedly remains one of the most pressing problems of the Middle East.

Maxime Rodinson, the renowed French scholar, opens the volume with a provocative Preface in which he challenges progressive forces and intellectuals to recognise the gravity and implications of the Kurdish question. Gerard Chaliand, the editor, follows with a wide-ranging Introduction that provides a useful summary for those new to the question, and Kendal describes the history of the Kurds under the Ottoman Empire. The principal authors then present a series of detailed chapters analysing the Kurdish national movement's achievements and defeats in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria and the Soviet Union, as well as a piece on the short-lived independent Kurdish Republic of Mahabad in 1946.

The authors of this book are, except for one, all leading Kurdish intellectuals and activists. Professor A. R. Ghassemlou taught at the Ecole Superieure d'Economie in Prague (1960-75) and wrote Kurdistan and the Kurds (1965) and Problems of Economic Growth in the Developing Countries (1969). After the flight of the Shah, he returned to Iran as secretary-general of the Kurdish Democratic Party (which since mid-1979 has been under military attack by the Ayatollah Khomeini's regime). Ismet Sheriff Vanly, a lawyer, was a representative of the Iraqi Kurdish national movement in Europe and author of Le Kurdistan irakien (1970). Kendal (a pseudonym) is also a Kurdish writer. And Mustafa Nazdar (another pseudonym) is from Syria. Archie Roosevelt Jnr was U.S. Deputy Military Attache in Tehran in 1946 and is included here for his account of the short-lived Mahabad Republic. The editor, Gerard Chaliand, is a well-known French author on Third World revolutionary movements.

'A book which allows Kurdish intellectuals to speak for themselves ... One of its great merits is the way it examines and compares the Kurdish policy of regimes as different as those of Damascus, Baghdad, Tehran and Ankara.'

Le Monde

Table des Matières


Preface by Maxime Rodinson / 1

Introduction by Gerard Chaliand / 8

Minorities Without Rights / 8
Public Opinion and the Minorities / 10
The History of the Kurdish Movement / 11
The Weaknesses of the Kurdish National Movement / 15

1. The Kurds under the Ottoman Empire by Kendal / 19
From Ottoman Cosmopolitanism to Ethnic Nationalisms / 19
The Origins of the Kurdish National Movement / 22
The Status of Kurdistan / (22)
Feudal' Kurdistan / (23)
The 19th Century Uprisings / 25
The Baban Revolt / (26)
Mir Mohammed's Attempted Conquest of Kurdistan / (26)
Bedir Khan Bey's Revolt / (28)
Yezdan Sher (Yezdan the Lion) / (30)
The Revolt of 1880 (Sheikh Obeidullah) / (31)
The Pan Islamic and Assimilationist Policies of Abdulhamid II, the Red Sultan / 32
The First Kurdish National Organizations / 34
The First World War / 37
The Post-War Years / 38
The Treaty of Sevres / 41

2. Kurdistan in Turkey by Kendal / 47
General Overview / 47
Territory and Population / (47)
Education and Culture / (49)
Religion / (50)
Health / (50)
Economic and Social Structures / (51)
Kurdistan under the Turkish Bourgeois Republic / 54
The Turkish War of Independence (1919-23) and the Kurds / (55)
The Colonial Carve-up of Kurdistan / (58)
The Great Revolts of the Twenties and Thirties / (60)
Some Reflections on Kemalism / (68)
The Quiet Years / (72)
The Democratic and Socialist Movement in Turkey, 1961-70 / (77)
The Various Forms of National Oppression / 81
Cultural Oppression / (83)
Political Oppression (87) Physical Repression (87)
The Kurdish National Movement in Turkey Today / 89
A Movement in Full Swing / (90)
Efforts Towards Organization / (91)
The Turkish Political Parties and the Kurdish Question / (93)
Some Concluding Remarks / (101)

3. Kurdistan in Iran by A. R. Ghassemlou / 107
The Kurds of Iran / 107
A Geographical Overview / (107)
The Population / (108)
Religion / (110)
Language and Literature / (110)
Education / (111)
Health (112)
Economic Conditions / (112)
The Kurdish Tribe and its Development / (113)
The Social Structure / (116)
A Historical Overview / 117
From the Battle of Chaldiran to the Second World War / (117)
The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad / (118)
The Vicissitudes of Twenty Years of History / (122)
The Armed Struggle of 1967-68 / (124)
Kurdistan in Iran and the Kurdish National Movement in Iraq 1961-75 / (125)
Kurdistan in Iran Today and Tomorrow / 125
The Shah's Policy in Iranian Kurdistan / (125)
The Positions Taken on the Kurdish Question by the Various Forces of the Political Opposition in Iran / (127)
The Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran / (131)
The Preconditions for Success (133) / 81

4. The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad by Archie Roosevelt Jnr. / 135
Formation of the Komala / 135
Soviet Infiltration / 138
The Democrat Party of Kurdistan / 140
The Kurdish People's Government / 142
Relations with Tabriz and Tehran / 142
Character of Qazi Mohammad and the Kurdish Republic / 145
Anti-Soviet Sentiment / 146
Opposition of the Tribes / 147
Re-establishment of Iranian Control / 148
In Summary / 150
5. Kurdistan in Iraq by Ismet Sheriff Vanly / 153
Introduction / 153
Geographic and Demographic Features / (153)
Historical Background / (158)
The War of Liberation, 1961-74 / 164
From 1961 to the 1970 Agreement (164)
The 11 March 1970 Agreement and the 'Period of Transition' / (168)
Discrimination and Economic Exploitation in Kurdistan / (173)
The Project for an Autonomous Kurdistan Collapses / (176)
The Fifth Kurdistan War / (180)
The Algiers Agreement and the Reasons for the Disaster / 182
Baghdad's Policy in Kurdistan / 192
Roads to Servitude / (192)
The Guerrilla War Resumes / (203)
The Morals of the Iraqi Baath / (204)
Poor People's Colonialism / 204

6. The Kurds in Syria by Mustafa Nazdar / 211
The Kurds in Medieval Syria / 213
The `Legal' and `Ideological' Basis for Oppression / 215
The Burden of Oppression / 217

7. The Kurds in the Soviet Union by Kendal / 220
Population / 220
Historical Outline / 222
Economic and Social Situation / 223
Cultural Life / 224

Postscript: Iranian Kurds under Ayatollah Khomeini by Gerard Chaliand / 229

Chronology / 233
Bibliography / 240
Index / 244
Regions Populated by the Kurds / viii
The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad, 1946 / 137
Iraqi Kurdistan / 155

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