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Village Guard System

Éditeur : DİSA Date & Lieu : 2013, Diyarbakır
Préface : Pages : 226
Traduction : Sedef Çakmak ISBN : 978-605-5458-19-5
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 160x235 mm
Code FIKP : Liv. Ang. Oza. Vil. 1380Thème : Général

Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
Village Guard System

Village Guard System

Șemsa Özar,
Nesrin Uçarlar,
Osman Aytar


The report you are holding contains an analysis, in a historical and social context, of the village guard system, which is one of the tools of the state in Turkey for polarizing the society as "pro-statist" and "enemy of the state" as a result of arming civilian citizens. This research sheds light on the background of the continuity between the Hamidiye Cavalry Regiments, the Late Ottoman paramilitary organization, and the "modern" village guard system that has been in practice since 1985.

For approximately 30 years, the common denominator of various political powers was to consider the village guard system as an infection that needs to be eradicated, and also viewed it as an armed force that should persist after these political groups came to power. We follow the traces of the motive behind this dual attitude in the part of our research where meeting minutes of the Assembly and the news of the press organs were examined.

In this research you will see that the village guard system is not only a tool of power, an instrument to polarize the Kurdish society or a world of armed crime, but also a social problem and an experience of human devastation. This field research was conducted on such a large scale for the first time and was based on the interviews done with the village guards, their spouses and children in their own villages. The research demonstrates the vast existence of different point of views regarding the village guard system, the state, PKK, Kurdish identity and their roles in this system among villagers who became the village guards willingly, by force or due to reasons beyond their control.

The research does not consider the village guard system as an institution that can be reformed or dissolved, but rather as an instrument that needs to be finalized by the mechanisms of seeking justice and social security while passing through a process without weapons and clashes. For this reason, a chapter regarding by which legal, political and social precautions the paramilitary organizations in other countries were abolished was also included in the report.

Osman Aytar defended his doctoral thesis on organizing diversity at the Department of Sociology at Stockholm University in Sweden in 2007. Now he is an associate professor in social work at Malardalen University in Sweden. In addition to his published books and articles in Kurdish and Turkish, migration, ethnicity, integration, diversity, diaspora, stateless nations and groups, globalism, organization and leadership are his main research interests.

Șemsa Özar graduated from Wirtshaftsuniversitaet, Vienna with a PhD in 1990. Since 1990 she teaches at Boğaziçi University primarily economic development and gender courses. Her research and writing concentrates on gender aspects of labour, social policy, forced migration, informal labour and micro and small enterprises. Her recent publication, Ne Değiști? Kürt Kadınların Zorunlu Göç Deneyimi (What Has Changed? Kurdish Women's Experiences of Forced Migration) coauthored by Handan Çağlayan and Ayșe Tepe Dogan offers a gendered perspective on the immigration of Kurds in Turkey.

Nesrin Uçarlar received her PhD from the Department of Political Science, Lund University in 2009. She works as lecturer at Department of International Relations, Istanbul Bilgi University. She currently conducts a research project on the community-based restorative justice in Turkey at Diyarbakir Social and Political Research Institute. Her recent studies focus on the elaboration of the Kurdish issue from the viewpoint of contemporary political philosophy in the framework of the concepts such as power, resistance, justice and the political. Besides her individual and joint publications, she recently contributed as co-editor - with Büșra Ersanli and Günay Göksu Özdoğan - of ''Türkiye Siyasetinde Kürtler - Direniș, Hak Arayıșı, Katılım" ["Kurds in Turkey’s Politics - Resistance, Claiming Rights and Participation”].


Table des Matières


I. Prerace / 9

II. Hamidiye Cavalry Regiments - A Historical Overview on the Paramilitary Organizations in the Ottoman Empire, Osman Aytar / 15
1. Introduction / 15
2. The mission, establishment and expanding periods of the regiments 17
3. Prominent practices and the social impact of the regiments / 22
4 Dissolution period and the end of the regiments / 29
5. Discussion and some concluding remarks / 32

III. Establishment, Construction and Preservation of the Village Guard System on the Meeting Minutes of the National Assembly and the Press, Nesrin Uçarlar / 39
1. Discussions taking place at the Grand National Assembly of Turkey regarding the village guard system: October 1984 - February2011 / 39
a. Village guard system again after sixty years: Implementation of the system, proposals and objections (1984-1988) / 40
b. Broadening of the village guard system: Problems and "solution" proposals (1988-1991) / 43
c. Consolidation of the village guard system: New governments, old methods (1991-1996) / 51
d. A new precaution regarding the village guard system: "Reform" (1996-2002) / 58
e. New interpretation of "reform": "Pacta Sunt Servanda" (2002-2009) / 66
f. Last turning point for the village guard system: "Bilge village massacre" and "HanqerTimi" ("DaggerTeam") (2009-2012) / 72
g. Evaluation / 78
Annex 1: The bills of law that were discussed, accepted and passed as a law during the session of May 27, 2007 / 81
2. Village guard system at press / 86
a. "An option for the citizens”: First years of the village guard system / 86
b. "Registration" and "workers of the factories without chimneys": Broadening of the village guard system / 90
c. Consolidation of the “vicious circle of village guard system" "between two fires”: Permanent temporariness, coerced voluntariness / 92
d. "The village guards cause more damage than good" / 97
e. “Reform" by means of becoming deputies and civil servants: The official side of the village guard system / 102
f. Struggle for domination on the village guards / 104
g. "Prohibited villages” for the individuals who are not village guards, “strategic villages” exclusively for the village guards / 118
h. Pursuits and deadlocks: “village guard station’’, "hunter squads", “foresters", “special village guards” and ‘Yuksekova gang" / 111
i. “Lice is under custody” / 115
j. “Is the village guard system getting dissolved?" / 118
k. “State-supported non-governmental organizations": Village guard associations / 124
l. Village guards: The obstacle against the return back to the villages / 128
m. “Bilge village massacre" / 131
n. The “history” of the village guard System: Unsolved murder, rape, crime; fear, conscience, peace / 135
o. Evaluation / 139

IV. An Overview of Village Guard System From Inside: Experiences and Demands of the Village Guards, Their Wives and Children, Șemsa Özar / 143
1. How did the village guard system commence? / 146
a. Taking up arms for the first time / 146
b. Gendarmerie oppression and not being able to abandon villages / 147
c. Misinformation - being a watchman / 150
d. Poverty and family ties / 151
e. Arming against the PKK / 153
f. Quarrel and hostility between families / 156
g. Pragmatism- seeing the village guard duty as a normal job, as a family profession / 156
2. Village guards and their families talking about questioning the village guard system / 158
a. Military is taking advantage of us / 160
b. Going on an operation / 161
c. Village guard battalions / 163
d. Solidarity among village guards, associations / 164
e. How village guards see the relation between military and village guards / 165
3. Transformation of villages and social relations / 169
a. How village guards are perceived / 169
b. Fears / 174
c. Thoughts, feelings and longings of the wives of village guards / 175
d. Being the child of a village guard / 176
4. Economic aspects of the village guard system / 179
a. Village guards' income, compensation, retirement, health insurance / 180
b. Disengagement from production: village guard duty as a full-time occupation / 180
c. Personnel rights / 183
5. Illegal activities that village guards were involved in / 186
6. Opinions on the abolition of the system / 189
a. They demand their rights / 190
b. Financial situation- they want jobs / 191
c. Fear of the PKK / 192

V. Country Case Studies On Paramilitary Organizations, Osman Aytar / 197
1. Introduction / 198
2. Theorical perspectives / 202
3. Different countries’ experiences: Philippines, Guatemala, South Africa and Iraq / 200
a. Philippines: Citizens Armed Forces Geographical Units / 200
b. Guatemala: Voluntary Civilian Defence Committees / 203
c. South Africa: Citizen Units / 208
d. Iraq: Saladin Knights / 211
e. Discussion and some concluding remarks / 215

VI. Evaluation / 221

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