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Arabization of the Kirkuk Region

Auteur : Nurî Talabanî
Éditeur : Kurdisches Institut Date & Lieu : 2012, Erbil
Préface : Pages : 138
Traduction : ISBN :
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 160x240 mm
Code FIKP : Liv. Eng. Tal. Ara. N°4808Thème : Général

Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
Arabization of the Kirkuk Region

Arabization of the Kirkuk Region

Nouri Talabany

Kurdish Academy

The diamond-shaped Kirkuk region lies between the Zagros Mountains in the north-east, the Lower Zab and the Tigris Rivers in the north-west and west, the Hamrin mountain range in the southwest, and the Diyala (Sirwan) river in the south-east. This is the region and city known as Ara'pha to the ancient cultures2 and as Karkha d’beth Silokh to the classical world (whence the name “Kirkuk”). To Sassanians, this was their governorate of Garmakân.3 To the medieval authors the region was known as Garmiyân. This historic name still survives for the region in the common folk language, while the classical Seleucid name of Kirkuk is reserved for the city alone.
Major trade routes pass through or touch on the borders of the Kirkuk Region. Many mountain passes such as the Bazyan, Ba’ssara and Sagerma also terminate in the Kirkuk regions As a consequence, the area has always been of strategic import to the powers that came to occupy it throughout the ages. To safeguard these commercial and strategic crossings, military garrisons were

Nouri Talabany
- Born in the city of Kirkuk and completed elementary, intermediate and secondary education there.
- Received BSc in Law from the University of Baghdad.
- Received PhD in Law from Paris University, France.
- Taught at Basra, Baghdad, Sulaintani and Salahadin Universities from 1968 until December 1982, when he w'as compulsorily retired for political reasons.
- Proposed a federal system for Kurdistan Region in a study written in London, in 1974. This appeared in the Iraqi Academic magazine, Kurdish Section, Vols. 16 & 17, 1987.
- Author of the first dictionary of legal terms in Kurdish, Arabic, French and English, published in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010.
- Published more than 170 studies and articles in Kurdish, and 64 in Arabic and more than 30 in English and French, published in both Kurdistan and elsewhere, some of them have been presented at international conferences in the USA and Europe.
- A Draft Constitution for the Iraqi Kurdistan Region was prepared by him in 1992.
- Member of the High Legal Committee in the Kurdistan Region in 1992.
- Chairman of the Kurdish Organisation for Human Rights in Britain from 1993 till 2000, and Director of the Kirkuk Trust for Research and Studies in London in 2000.
- President of the High Electoral Commission of the Kurdistan Region in July 2004.
- An independent MP in the Parliament of the Kurdistan Region (2005 - 2009).
- Member of the Kurdish Academy since November 2007.
- Elected as a President of the Kurdish Academy in September 2011


Table des Matières

Table of Contents

Foreword by Lord Avebury / 5
Preface / 6

I A synopsis of the History and Geography of the Kirkuk Region / 7

II The Non-Kurdish ethnic population in the Kirkuk Region: The Turkmans / 12
1. Origins /14
2. Population Estimates / 15
3. Relations between Kurds and Turkmans / 18
4. Political Orientations of the Turkmans / 21

III Earliest Attempts at Arabization / 23
A - The period of the monarchy / 24
The role of the oil company in changing the ethnic character of the city of Kirkuk / 25
The building of the Hawija Irrigation Project to settle Arab tribes in the Kirkuk Region / 26

B - The period from 1958 to 1968 / 28
Measures towards Arabization taken by the organizers of the February 1963 coup in the Kirkuk Governorate / 37

C - The period from 1968 to the present / 39
Measures taken by the Iraqi regime inside the city of Kirkuk / 40
Measures taken by the regime to Arabize the entire Kirkuk Governorate / 49
1. City District of Kirkuk / 53
2. Dubz District (Arabized to “Al - Debiss) / 58
3. Hawija District / 59
4. Chamchamal District / 59
5. Duz-Khurmatu District / 61
6. Kiffi District / 64
7. Kala’r District / 67

IV The result of Arabization and the destruction of the Kirkuk Region / 69

Appendixes / 76
Some pictures of the citadel of Kirkuk / 134

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