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From Victim Diaspora to Transborder Citizenship?


Auteur : Khalid Khayati
Éditeur : LiU-Tryck Date & Lieu : 2008, Linköping
Préface : Pages : 295
Traduction : ISBN : 978-91-7393-884-6
Langue : AnglaisFormat : 210x297 mm
Thème : Thèses

Présentation
Table des Matières Introduction Identité PDF
From Victim Diaspora to Transborder Citizenship?

FROM VICTIM DIASPORA TO TRANSBORDER CITIZENSHIP?
Diaspora formation and transnational relations among Kurds in France and Sweden

My initial knowledge of the Kurds in France dates back to the years 1997–98, when I traveled from Sweden to Provence, in France, in order to study political science at the Institut d’Études Politiques in Aix-en-Provence. During my sojourn there I realized that the majority of the Kurds in this part of France originated from a particular Kurdish rural area in Turkey, called Sarhad. They lived and developed their diasporic organizations in a number of cities and localities of the French Bouchesdu-Rhône, including Marseille, Marignane, Vitrolles, Aubagne and Aixen-Provence. Sarhadi Kurds, who mostly were asylum seekers, worked primarily in the building and restaurant trades, more often than not in harsh conditions. Moreover, I became gradually conscious that, like many other diasporan Kurds, Sarhadi Kurds – no matter where they are – regularly evoke the negative experiences of oppression and suffering in their societies of origin, which not only reinforced their sense of being victims but also considerably impeded the emergence of positive diaspora discourses.

At that time, I was wondering whether the victim diaspora discourse (Cohen 1995, 1996) that was much in evidence among the Kurds was an invention of diasporan Kurds themselves or, to the contrary, was strongly rooted in genuine repression of the Kurds in Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria in the course of 20th century, and enhanced by negative memories of migration and by problems of social exclusion and discrimination that the Kurds experienced in their new societies. As my general knowledge of the Sarhadi Kurds increased during my stay in the region of Marseille, I wondered whether a common sense of victimhood constituted the major motive for diasporan Kurds in Sweden and France to maintain a diasporic identity, or whether other experiences and practices not only counteracted the Kurds’ victim diaspora discourse but also affected their transnational practices and the process of diaspora formation. If the latter, the question would be how these other trajectories and occurrences gave rise to various action modes that diasporan Kurds in France and Sweden adopted.


Table des Matières

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS / viii
INTRODUCTION / 1
THE DISCOURSE OF VICTIM DIASPORA AMONG THE KURDS AND CHALLENGING PROSPECTS / 2
1. DIASPORA, TRANSNATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND TRANSBORDER CITIZENSHIP: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS / 11
THE NOTION OF DIASPORA: AN INTRODUCTION / 12
DIASPORA AS A SITE OF CONSCIOUSNESS / 15
CONSTITUTIVE ELEMENTS OF DIASPORA: A CRITICAL READING / 16
Dispersion: nomadic or forced? / 17
Homeland orientation: between teleology of return and multilocality? / 19
Boundary maintenance: vis-à-vis whom and what? / 22
TRANSNATIONALISM: A GENERAL VIEW / 24
THE STRUCTURE OF TRANSNATIONAL CORRELATION: SOCIAL FIELDS AND SPACES / 29
EMERGENCE OF TRANSMIGRANTS / 31
CROSS-BORDERING ECONOMIC PRACTICES AMONG TRANSNATIONAL AGENCIES IN THE CAPITAL
WORLD / 33
DIASPORAN AND TRANSNATIONAL ASSABIYYA / 35
DIASPORIC IDENTITY MAKING AND TRANSNATIONAL CONNECTIONS ONLINE AND ON AIR / 36
THE NOTION OF TRANSBORDER CITIZENSHIP / 38
LIMITS OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSBORDER CITIZENSHIP / 42
SUMMARIZING THEORETICAL OUTCOMES / 44

2. COMPARATIVE METHODOLOGY, ETHNOGRAPHY AND THE DILEMMA OF INSIDERNESS: METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS / 46
DIASPORAN KURDS IN TWO DIFFERENT FIELDS: A COMPARATIVE APPROACH / 46
OBSERVING KURDISH DIASPORA THROUGH ETHNOGRAPHY / 50
ETHNOGRAPHIC FIELDWORK AMONG DIASPORAN KURDS IN SWEDEN AND FRANCE / 52
INTERVIEW AND OBSERVATION, AND EXISTING CHALLENGES / 53
CYBER-ETHNOGRAPHY AMONG THE KURDS / 57
TIME AND MODE OF ETHNOGRAPHY / 59
DILEMMA OF INSIDERNESS AND ETHICAL ASPECTS / 60

3. FORCED MIGRATION AND THE FORMATION OF THE KURDISH DIASPORA: A GENERAL VIEW / 64
PERCEIVING THE KURDISH IDENTITY BEYOND THE NOTION OF “ORIGIN” AND THE KURDISH VICTIM DIASPORA DISCOURSE / 65
THE RISE OF KURDISH NATIONALISM AND FORCED MIGRATION IN KURDISTAN: HISTORICAL
BACKGROUND / 67
Kurds in Turkey: from total denial to folkloristic existence / 69
Kurds in Iran: violence and folkloristic existence / 75
Kurds in Iraq: from genocide to quasi-independence / 77
Stateless Kurds in Syria / 79
CARTOGRAPHY OF THE KURDISH DIASPORA / 79
THE JOURNEY OF THE KURDISH REFUGEES / 83
KURDS FROM DORMANT DIASPORA TO ACTIVE DIASPORA: A GLOBAL VIEW OF THE PRACTICE OF
LONG-DISTANCE NATIONALISM / 85
KURDISH DIASPORA ON AIR AND ONLINE, AND ITS LIMITATIONS / 91
IMPLICATIONS OF ASSABIYYA FOR THE KURDS / 95
THE EMERGENCE OF THE DE FACTO STATE OF IRAQI KURDISTAN / 99
ECONOMIC PROSPECTS IN IRAQI KURDISTAN / 100
LIMITATIONS OF POLITICS IN IRAQI KURDISTAN / 102
SUMMARY / 105

4. THE KURDISH DIASPORA IN FRANCE / 107
PART I / 109
THE FRENCH REPUBLICAN MODEL OF INTEGRATION / 109
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE RECEPTION AND INTEGRATION OF IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES / 111
HISTORIOGRAPHY OF IMMIGRATION IN FRANCE / 114
THE ERA OF “THREE DECADES OF GLORY” (TRENTE GLORIEUSES) / 116
FRANCE AS A TERRE D’ASILE / 119
THE OUTLINE OF ZÉRO IMMIGRATION / 121
THE ERA OF THE BANLIEUES / 124
THE DECAY OF THE BANLIEUES, SOCIAL EXCLUSION AND ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION / 126
THE BANLIEUE UPRISING OF NOVEMBER 2005 / 129
ISLAMIZATION OF THE RIOT DISCOURSE / 132
THE CRISIS OF FRENCH MONOCULTURALISM AND THE PLACE OF THE “OTHER” IN FRENCH SOCIETY / 135

PART II / 142
FORMATION OF THE KURDISH DIASPORA IN FRANCE / 142
THE EPISODE OF THE EAST SEA AND THE KURDISH REFUGEES AS “BOAT PEOPLE” / 144
PAINFUL MEMORIES OF SANGATTE / 147
INSTITUTIONAL ACTIVITIES AND THE PRACTICES OF TRANSBORDER CITIZENSHIP AMONG
DIASPORAN KURDS IN FRANCE / 149
SARHADI KURDS IN THE REGION OF MARSEILLE / 154
THE MEMORY OF HOMELAND AMONG THE SARHADI KURDS / 155
SARHADI KURDS AS ETERNAL ASYLUM SEEKERS / 158
ASSABIYYA AND SOLIDARITY NETWORKS AMONG THE SARHADI KURDS / 161
SARHADI KURDS IN THE FRENCH LABOR AND HOUSING MARKETS: BETWEEN EXCLUSION AND
INVISIBILITY / 165
LA MAISON DU PEUPLE KURDE IN MARSEILLE AS A NORMALIZING INSTITUTION / 171
SUMMARY / 173

5. KURDS IN SWEDEN AS TRANSBORDER CITIZENS: A GENERAL VIEW / 176
PART I / 179
SWEDISH IMMIGRATION, REFUGEE AND IMMIGRANT POLICY / 179
IMMIGRATION AND REFUGEE FLOWS INTO SWEDEN: A HISTORIC OVERVIEW / 180
CONTROL AND REGULATION OF THE INFLUX / 181
SWEDISH IMMIGRANT POLICY IN THE 1960S: ASSIMILATION AS THE GUIDING CONCEPT / 182
FROM ASSIMILATION TO MULTICULTURALISM / 184
OUTLINES OF THE IMMIGRANT AND MINORITIES POLICY OF 1975: INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS / 185
EMERGENCE OF RACIST AND DISCRIMINATORY TRENDS: FROM IMMIGRATION TO INTEGRATION / 187
INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS, PARTICIPATION, CITIZENSHIP AND DIVERSITY: INTEGRATIONIST RHETORIC OR LEGITIMATE PRACTICES? / 190
ETHNIC AND RACIAL BOUNDARIES IN THE SWEDISH “PEOPLE’S HOME” (FOLKHEM) / 195
THE PLACE OF THE “OTHER” IN SWEDISH SOCIETY: STRUCTURAL DISCRIMINATION AND THE
EMERGENCE OF SWEDEN DEMOCRATS / 198

PART II / 202
DIASPORAN KURDS IN SWEDEN: ARRIVAL AND SETTLEMENT / 202
KURDS IN THE SUBURBS: THE EXPERIENCE OF HOUSING SEGREGATION / 205
KURDISH ASSABIYYA IN SWEDEN / 211
ETHNIC DIVISIONS IN THE SWEDISH LABOR MARKET: KURDISH TAXI DRIVERS IN THE CITY / 216
THE STIGMATIZED IMAGE OF KURDS IN THE SWEDISH MEDIA: “HONOR KILLING” AS A BOUNDARYMAKING PHENOMENON / 223
BEING BOTH HERE AND THERE: SIMULTANEOUS POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL PRACTICES / 228
KURDISH ASSOCIATIONS IN SWEDEN: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES / 230
NEW MODES OF POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND THE PATTERNS OF TRANSBORDER CITIZENSHIP / 234
SUMMARY / 237

CONCLUSION / 239
COMPARING THE FORMATION OF THE KURDISH DIASPORA IN FRANCE AND SWEDEN / 239
CONTEXTUALIZING THE KURDISH DIASPORA IN FRANCE AND SWEDEN: DIFFERENCES AND
SIMILARITIES / 241
CONCEIVING THE DISCOURSE OF VICTIM DIASPORA AROUND THE EXPERIENCE OF FORCED
MIGRATION IN KURDISTAN / 243
KURDS AS THE “OTHERS”: TWO DIFFERENT EXPERIENCES IN TWO DIFFERENT CONTEXTS / 244
PERSISTENCE OF VICTIM DIASPORA AMONG THE SARHADI KURDS IN FRANCE / 250
ASSABIYYA NETWORKS AMONG DIASPORAN KURDS, SOCIAL MOBILITY IN SWEDEN AND THE
STRATEGY OF SURVIVAL IN FRANCE / 251
THE PRACTICE OF TRANSBORDER CITIZENSHIP AND LONG-DISTANCE NATIONALISM AMONG
DIASPORAN KURDS IN FRANCE AND SWEDEN: SWEDEN AS A CENTER OF GRAVITY / 252
FINAL WORDS / 255

BIBLIOGRAPHY / 258




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